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Title

Assessment of Graphitized Coal Ash Char Concentrates as a Potential Synthetic Graphite Source

AuthorsBadenhorst, Charlotte; Santos, Claudia; Lázaro-Martínez, Juan; Białecka, Barbara; Cruceru, Mihai; Guedes, Alexandra; Guimarães, Renato; Moreira, Karen; Predeanu, Georgeta; Suárez Ruiz, Isabel CSIC ORCID ; Cameán Martínez, Ignacio CSIC ORCID ; Valentim, Bruno; Wagne, Nicola
Issue DateNov-2020
PublisherMultidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
CitationMinerals 10(11): 986 (2020)
AbstractCoal ash char concentrates from four countries (Portugal, Poland, Romania, and South Africa) were prepared, characterised, and graphitized under the scope of the Charphite project (Third ERA-MIN Joint Call (2015) on the Sustainable Supply of Raw Materials in Europe). Coal ash chars may be a secondary raw material to produce synthetic graphite and could be an alternative to natural graphite, which is a commodity with a high supply risk. The char concentrates and the graphitized material derived from the char concentrates were characterised using proximate analysis, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction (structural), Raman microspectroscopy, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, scanning electron microscopy, and petrographic analyses to determine if the graphitization of the char was successful, and which char properties enhanced or hindered graphitization. Char concentrates with a lower proportion of anisotropic particles and a higher proportion of mixed porous particles showed greater degrees of graphitization. It is curious to see that embedded Al2O3 minerals, such as glass and clay, influenced graphitization, as they most likely acted as catalysts for crystal growth in the basal direction. However, the graphitized samples, as a whole, do not compare well against a reference natural graphite sample despite some particles in select char concentrates appearing to be graphitized following graphitization.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.3390/min10110986
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/230801
DOIhttp://dx.doi.org/10.3390/min10110986
ISSN2075-163X
Appears in Collections:(INCAR) Artículos
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