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Energy content of anchovy and sardine using surrogate calorimetry methods

AuthorsCampanini, Claudia; Albo Puigserver, Marta CSIC ORCID CVN ; Gérez Orús, Sara; Lloret Lloret, Elena ; Giménez, Joan CSIC ORCID ; Pennino, Maria Grazia; Bellido, José M.; Colmenero, Ana I. CSIC ORCID ; Coll, Marta CSIC ORCID
KeywordsEuropean anchovy
Body condition
Issue DateDec-2021
CitationMarine Environmental Research 172: 105510 (2021)
AbstractEuropean anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus) are crucial species for the marine ecosystem of the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea. They account for a high percentage of fish landings and they represent an important economic income. Concerns over their stock status are rising in recent years as biomass, growth, reproductive capacity and body condition of both species are declining. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a continuous and fast body condition monitoring scheme. Energy storage variability has important implications for both fish recruitment and population structure. Direct condition indices, such as bomb calorimetry, are highly reliable for measuring the energy content, but extremely time-consuming. Alternatively, fatmeter analysis and relative condition index (Kn) have been proposed as effective indirect methods. The aim of this study is to test the application of fatmeter as a surrogate of bomb calorimetry to infer the energy content of both small pelagic fishes. For the validation, fatmeter values were compared with both energy density (ED; via bomb calorimetry) and Kn values. Individuals of both species were sampled monthly in Barcelona harbor for a year in order to assess seasonal variations in energy content. Our results highlight that fatmeter measurements are strongly correlated with calorimetry for sardine, while a weaker but significant correlation was found for anchovy. The observed differences between the two species are related to their breeding strategies. Based on this study, fatmeter analysis appears to be a faster and suitable method to evaluate the energy content of both species routinely., In addition, we provide a linear model to infer ED from fatmeter values of both small pelagic fish. Eventually, these findings could allow for the avoidance of bomb calorimetry and could be used to implement body condition monitoring protocols, and to boost continuous large-scale monitoring
Description7 figures, 2 tables
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