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Title

Phenotypic and genomic differences among S. cerevisiae strains in nitrogen requirements during wine fermentations

AuthorsSu, Ying; Macías, Laura G.; Heras, José María; Querol, Amparo CSIC ORCID; Guillamón, José Manuel CSIC ORCID
KeywordsS. cerevisiae
Nitrogen requirement
Genetic basis
Biomass production
Competition experiments
CRISPR/Cas9
Issue Date27-Dec-2020
PublisherElsevier
CitationFood Microbiology 96: 103685 (2021)
AbstractNitrogen requirements by S. cerevisiae during wine fermentation are highly strain-dependent. Different approaches were applied to explore the nitrogen requirements of 28 wine yeast strains. Based on the growth and fermentation behaviour displayed at different nitrogen concentrations, high and low nitrogen-demanding strains were selected and further verified by competition fermentation. Biomass production with increasing nitrogen concentrations in the exponential fermentation phase was analysed by chemostat cultures. Low nitrogen-demanding (LND) strains produced a larger amount of biomass in nitrogen-limited synthetic grape musts, whereas high nitrogen-demanding (HND) strains achieved a bigger biomass yield when the YAN concentration was above 100 mg/L. Constant rate fermentation was carried out with both strains to determine the amount of nitrogen required to maintain the highest fermentation rate. Large differences appeared in the analysis of the genomes of low and high-nitrogen demanding strains showed for heterozygosity and the amino acid substitutions between orthologous proteins, with nitrogen recycling system genes showing the widest amino acid divergences. The CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome modification method was used to validate the involvement of GCN1 in the yeast strain nitrogen needs. However, the allele swapping of gene GCN1 from low nitrogen-demanding strains to high nitrogen-demanding strains did not significantly influence the fermentation rate.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2020.103685
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/226988
DOI10.1016/j.fm.2020.103685
ISSN0740-0020
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