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On the mechanism of the glucagon-induced inhibition of hepatic protein synthesis

AuthorsMartín Requero, A.; Pérez Díaz, Julio CSIC ORCID ; Sánchez Ayuso, Matilde CSIC ORCID ; Parrilla, Roberto L.
Issue DateJun-1979
CitationArchives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 195(1): 223-234 (1979)
AbstractThe intraperitoneal administration of glucagon (200 μg) to rats produced a transient increase of the hepatic polypeptide chain completion time, the increase being maximum at 5 min returning to control values at 20 min. This inhibitory effect was sustained when glucagon was constantly supplied by continuous infusion. Postmitochondrial supernatants from livers of the control group or rats treated with glucagon for 5 min showed no difference in their protein synthetic activity. After 20 min of intraperitoneal administration of the hormone, that is, when the effect on protein synthesis had vanished, the levels of cAMP were still 40% above those of the control group, and the ribosomal proteins were 110% more phosphorylated. These results suggest that the observed effect of glucagon is not due to its direct action on the protein synthesis machinery. On the other hand, the variations in the hepatic amino acid content brought about by glucagon do not appear to be quantitatively significant to account for the observed inhibition of protein synthesis. The effect of glucagon was always paralleled by a decrease in the [ATP] [ADP] ratio which may be responsible for the observed decrease in the rates of elongation and/or termination steps of protein synthesis. Glucagon also produced a rise in the [NADH] [NAD+] ratio in both cellular compartments, cytosol and mitochondria, as reflected by the rise in the lactate to pyruvate and the β-hydroxybutyrate to acetoacetate ratios. This shift of the NAD+ couple to a more reduced state seems to be the result of an increased mobilization and oxidation of fatty acids brought about by the hormone. It is postulated then that the primary effect of glucagon leading to a decrease in protein synthesis is probably to increase the state of reduction of the hepatic nicotinamide nucleotide system. This point of view is supported by the fact that the nicotinamide and adenine nucleotide systems in rat liver are in equilibrium through cytosolic equilibrium reactions, so that a decrease in the [ATP] [ADP] ratio brought about by glucagon may be secondary to the increase in the [NADH] [NAD+] ratio. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that glucagon was not effective in inhibiting hepatic protein synthesis in rats pretreated with a drug, 2-benzene-sulfonamido-5-(β-methoxy-ethoxy)pyrimidine, that prevents fatty acid mobilization and the subsequent changes in the [NADH] [NAD+] and [ATP] [ADP] ratios. Furthermore, the administration of exogenous fatty acid brings about an inhibition of the rate of hepatic protein synthesis accompanied by a decrease in the ATP levels and an increase in the state of reduction of the NAD+ system.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-9861(79)90344-8
Identifiersdoi: 10.1016/0003-9861(79)90344-8
issn: 0003-9861
Appears in Collections:(CIB) Artículos
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