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Imidazole and imidazolium antibacterial drugs derived from amino acids

AuthorsValls, Adriana; Andreu, Jose J.; Falomir, Eva; Luis, Santiago V.; Atrián-Blasco, Elena CSIC ORCID CVN ; Mitchell, Scott G.; Altava, Belén
KeywordsImidazole and imidazolium salts
Amino acid
Antibacterial agents
Issue Date2020
PublisherMultidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
CitationPharmaceuticals 13(12): 482 (2020)
AbstractThe antibacterial activity of imidazole and imidazolium salts is highly dependent upon their lipophilicity, which can be tuned through the introduction of different hydrophobic substituents on the nitrogen atoms of the imidazole or imidazolium ring of the molecule. Taking this into consideration, we have synthesized and characterized a series of imidazole and imidazolium salts derived from L-valine and L-phenylalanine containing different hydrophobic groups and tested their antibacterial activity against two model bacterial strains, Gram-negative E. coli and Gram-positive B. subtilis. Importantly, the results demonstrate that the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of these derivatives can be tuned to fall close to the cytotoxicity values in eukaryotic cell lines. The MBC value of one of these compounds toward B. subtilis was found to be lower than the IC50 cytotoxicity value for the control cell line, HEK-293. Furthermore, the aggregation behavior of these compounds has been studied in pure water, in cell culture media, and in mixtures thereof, in order to determine if the compounds formed self-assembled aggregates at their bioactive concentrations with the aim of determining whether the monomeric species were in fact responsible for the observed antibacterial activity. Overall, these results indicate that imidazole and imidazolium compounds derived from L-valine and L-phenylalanine—with different alkyl lengths in the amide substitution—can serve as potent antibacterial agents with low cytotoxicity to human cell lines.
DescriptionThis article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Antibacterial Agents.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13120482
Appears in Collections:(INMA) Artículos
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