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Silicon 3D Microdetectors for Microdosimetry in Hadron Therapy

AuthorsGuardiola Salmerón, Consuelo; Fleta, Celeste; Quirion, David; Pellegrini, Giulio; Gómez Rodríguez, Faustino
Hadron therapy
Linear energy transfer (LET)
Issue Date28-Nov-2020
PublisherMultidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
CitationMicromachines 11(12): 1053 (2020)
AbstractThe present overview describes the evolution of new microdosimeters developed in the National Microelectronics Center in Spain (IMB-CNM, CSIC), ranging from the first ultra-thin 3D diodes (U3DTHINs) to the advanced 3D-cylindrical microdetectors, which have been developed over the last 10 years. In this work, we summarize the design, main manufacture processes, and electrical characterization of these devices. These sensors were specifically customized for use in particle therapy and overcame some of the technological challenges in this domain, namely the low noise capability, well-defined sensitive volume, high spatial resolution, and pile-up robustness. Likewise, both architectures reduce the loss of charge carriers due to trapping effects, the charge collection time, and the voltage required for full depletion compared to planar silicon detectors. In particular, a 3D‒cylindrical architecture with electrodes inserted into the silicon bulk and with a very well‒delimited sensitive volume (SV) mimicked a cell array with shapes and sizes similar to those of mammalian cells for the first time. Experimental tests of the carbon beamlines at the Grand Accélérateur National d’Lourds (GANIL, France) and Centro Nazionale Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO, Italy) showed the feasibility of the U3DTHINs in hadron therapy beams and the good performance of the 3D‒cylindrical microdetectors for assessing linear energy distributions of clinical beams, with clinical fluence rates of 5 × 10<sup>7</sup> s<sup>−1</sup>cm<sup>−2</sup> without saturation. The dose-averaged lineal energies showed a generally good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. The results indicated that these devices can be used to characterize the microdosimetric properties in hadron therapy, even though the charge collection efficiency (CCE) and electronic noise may pose limitations on their performance, which is studied and discussed herein. In the last 3D‒cylindrical microdetector generation, we considerably improved the CCE due to the microfabrication enhancements, which have led to shallower and steeper dopant profiles. We also summarize the successive microdosimetric characterizations performed with both devices in proton and carbon beamlines.
Identifiersdoi: 10.3390/mi11121053
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