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Reduction of availability of trace metals in urban soils using inorganic amendments.
|Authors:||Madrid Díaz, Fernando CSIC ORCID; Romero, A.S.; Madrid, Luis CSIC; Maqueda Porras, Celia CSIC||Keywords:||EDTA
Trace metal availability
|Issue Date:||19-Apr-2006||Publisher:||Springer||Citation:||Environmental Geochemistry and Health 28:365–373 (2006)||Abstract:||Urban soils in medium- and large-sized cities generally have shown elevated contents of environmentally important trace metals (e.g. lead, copper, zinc). Such high concentrations in soils of green areas, mainly recreational areas, can be a source of potentially toxic elements and pose a risk for human health. Thus the availability of these contaminants is an essential control parameter, as it indicates potential plant uptake and their transfer to humans via inhalation of suspended dust, or direct ingestion (i.e. hand to mouth pathway), or consumption of contaminated foodstuff. Young children are the most sensitive segment of the population. Addition of amendments to the soil is a feasible technique to reduce the availability of trace metals. Accordingly, four urban soils of green areas of Seville (Spain), with relatively high lead contents and moderate copper and zinc contents, were amended in the laboratory with four inorganic materials [acid zeolite (AZ), sodium zeolite (SZ), Slovakite (SL), apatite (AP)], at two rates (1%, 5% w/w) and incubated for 1 year. Significant decreases in EDTA-extractable metal contents were observed in some of the treatments after adding the amendments even before the incubation begun, mainly for SL treatments. The amendment that produced the longest lasting immobilisation effect, compared to control treatments, was AZ at the higher rate. The effects of SZ and SL tended to decrease with time, while the AP effect was almost negligible after 3 months of ageing. This study confirms the feasibility of using certain inexpensive soil amendments to at least temporarily immobilise metals in urban soils for the purpose of protecting human health, especially that of young children.||Publisher version (URL):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10653-005-9034-9||URI:||http://hdl.handle.net/10261/22534||DOI:||10.1007/s10653-005-9034-9||ISSN:||0269-4042||E-ISSN:||1573-2983|
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