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Passive Immunization delays disease outcome in Gilthead sea bream infected with Enteromyxum leei (Myxozoa), despite the moderate changes in IgM and IgT repertoire

AuthorsPicard-Sánchez, Amparo; Estensoro, Itziar ; Perdiguero, Pedro; Pozo, R. del; Tafalla, Carolina; Piazzon de Haro, María Carla ; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna
KeywordsSparus aurata
Passive immunity
Intestinal parasite
Immune response
Immunoglobulin repertoire
Issue Date11-Sep-2020
PublisherFrontiers Media
CitationFrontiers in Immunology 11: 581361 (2020)
AbstractPassive immunization constitutes an emerging field of interest in aquaculture, particularly with the restrictions for antibiotic use. Enteromyxum leei is a myxozoan intestinal parasite that invades the paracellular space of the intestinal epithelium, producing a slow-progressing disease, leading to anorexia, cachexia and mortalities. We have previously demonstrated that gilthead sea bream (GSB, Sparus aurata) that survive E. leei infection become resistant upon re-exposure, and this resistance is directly related to the presence of high levels of specific IgM in serum. Thus, the current work was aimed to determine if passive immunization could help to prevent enteromyxosis in GSB and to study in detail the nature of these protective antibodies. Serum from a pool of resistant (SUR) or naïve (NAI) animals was intracoelomically injected 24 h prior to the E. leei-effluent challenge and at 9 days post-challenge (dpc). Effluent challenge lasted for 23 days, and then the injected groups were allocated in separate tanks with clean water. A non-lethal parasite diagnosis was performed at 56 dpc. At the final sampling (100 dpc), blood, serum and tissues were collected for histology, molecular diagnosis and the detection of circulating antibodies. In parallel, we performed an immunoglobulin repertoire analysis of the fish generating SUR and NAI sera. The results showed that, fish injected with parasite-specific antibodies (spAbs) became infected with the parasite, but showed lower disease signs and intensity of infection than the other groups, indicating a later establishment of the parasite. Repertoire analysis revealed that E. leei induced a polyclonal expansion of diverse IgM and IgT subsets that could be in part an evasion strategy of the parasite. Nonetheless, GSB was able to produce sufficient levels of parasite-spAbs to avoid re-infection of surviving animals and confer certain degree of protection upon passive transfer of antibodies. These results highlight the crucial role of spAb responses against E. leei and set the basis for the development of effective treatment or prophylactic methods for aquaculture.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.581361
Identifiersdoi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.581361
issn: 1664-3224
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