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Effects of inactivated Mycobacterium bovis vaccination on molokai-origin wild pigs experimentally infected with virulent M. bovis

AuthorsNol, Pauline; Wehtje, Morgan E.; Bowen, Richard A.; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Thacker, Tyler C.; Lantz, Kristina; Rhyan, Jack C.; Baeten, Laurie A.; Juste, Ramón A.; Sevilla, Iker A.; Gortázar, Christian ; Vicente, Joaquín
KeywordsSus scrofa
Wild pig
Feral swine
Mycobacterium bovis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex
Issue Date2020
PublisherMultidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
CitationPathogens 9(3): 199 (2020)
AbstractThe wild pig population on Molokai, Hawaii, USA is a possible reservoir for bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, and has been implicated in decades past as the source of disease for the island’s domestic cattle. Heat-inactivated vaccines have been effective for reducing disease prevalence in wild boar in Spain and could prove useful for managing M. bovis in Molokai wild pigs. We designed an experiment to test this vaccine in wild pigs of Molokai genetics. Fifteen 3–4-month-old pigs were orally administered 106–107 colony forming units (cfu) of heat-inactivated M. bovis (Vaccinates; n = 8; 0.2 mL) or phosphate buffered saline (Controls; n = 7; 0.2 mL). Each dose was administered in a 0.5 mL tube embedded in a fruit candy/cracked corn mix. Boosters were given seven weeks post-prime in the same manner and dose. Nineteen weeks post-prime, pigs were orally challenged with 1 × 106 cfu of virulent M. bovis. Twelve weeks post-challenge, pigs were euthanized and necropsied, at which time 23 different tissues from the head, thorax, and abdomen were collected and examined. Each tissue was assigned a lesion score. Ordinal lesion score data were analyzed using non-parametric Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. Effect size was calculated using Cohen’s d. Four of eight Vaccinates and four of seven Controls had gross and microscopic lesions, as well as culture-positive tissues. Vaccinates had statistically lower lesion scores than Controls in the following areas: gross thoracic lesion scores (p = 0.013 Cohen’s d = 0.33) and microscopic thoracic lesion scores (p = 0.002, Cohen’s d = 0.39). There were no differences in head lesion scores alone, both gross and microscopic, nor were there differences when comparing combined gross and microscopic head and thoracic lesion scores. These results are indicative that this vaccination protocol affords a modest degree of infection containment with this vaccine in Molokai wild pigs.
DescriptionThis article belongs to the Special Issue Tuberculosis Epidemiology and Control in Multi-Host Systems.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9030199
Appears in Collections:(IREC) Artículos
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