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Molecular characterization of Cardinium, Rickettsia, Spiroplasma and Wolbachia in mite species from citrus orchards

AuthorsPina, Tatiana; Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Cabedo-López, Marc; Cruz-Miralles, Joaquín; Jaques, Josep A.; Hurtado-Ruiz, Mónica A.
Issue Date2020
PublisherSpringer Nature
CitationExperimental and Applied Acarology 81: 335–355 (2020)
AbstractTetranychidae spider mites are considered key citrus pests in some production areas, especially Tetranychus urticae Koch. Over the past decades, pesticide overuse seems to have promoted T. urticae population selection in citrus orchards. However, the microbiota has also been pointed out as a plausible explanation for population structure or plant host specialisation observed in several arthropod species. In this work, we have determined the incidence of Cardinium, Rickettsia, Spiroplasma and Wolbachia as representatives of major distorter bacteria genera in Aplonobia histricina (Berlese), Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor), Eutetranychus orientalis (Klein), Panonychus citri (McGregor), Tetranychus evansi Baker and Pritchard, Tetranychus turkestani Ugarov and Nikolskii, and T. urticae populations from Spanish citrus orchards. Only Wolbachia was detected by PCR. The multilocus alignment approach and phylogenetic inference indicated that all detected Wolbachia belong to supergroup B. The deep analysis of each 16S rDNA, ftsZ and wsp gene sequences allowed identifying several phylogenetically different Wolbachia sequences. It probably indicates the presence of several different races or strains, all of them belonging to supergroup B. The wsp sequence typing analysis unveiled the presence of the two already identified alleles (61 and 370) and allowed to contribute with five new alleles, supporting the presence of different but related B-races in the studied mite populations. The results are discussed and related to T. urticae population structure, previously observed in Spanish citrus orchards.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.1007/s10493-020-00508-z
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