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Occurrence of C60 and related fullerenes in the Sava River under different hydrologic conditions

AuthorsSanchís, Josep ; Milacic, R.; Zuliani, T.; Vidmar, J.; Abad Holgado, Esteban ; Farré, Marinella ; Barceló, Damià
Issue Date2018
CitationScience of the Total Environment 643: 1108- 1116 (2018)
AbstractThe presence of nanomaterials in the environment has caught the attention of the scientific because of the uncertainties in their fate, mobility and potential toxic effects. However, few studies have determined experimentally their concentration levels in aquatic systems up to date, which complicates the development of an adequate risk assessment. In the present study, the occurrence of ten fullerenes has been assessed in the Sava River (Southeastern Europe): 27 freshwater samples and 12 sediment samples from 12 sampling points have been analysed during two sampling campaigns. C was the most ubiquitous fullerene, with concentrations of 8 pg/l–59 ng/l and 108–895 pg/g in water and sediments, respectively. Statistically significant differences existed between the levels in 2014 and 2015, which has been attributed to the extreme hydrologic conditions (severe floods and drought, respectively). C fullerene has been detected in most of the samples and the fullerene derivatives [6,6]-phenyl C butyric acid methyl ester and N‑methyl fulleropyrrolidine have been detected eventually, which highlights that nanotechnology research and development activities are responsible for emitting these emerging contaminants to the environment. The role of diverse potential anthropogenic sources (including oil refinery, general industrial activity, river navigation, urban emissions and nanotechnology) is discussed.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.06.285
Identifiersdoi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.06.285
issn: 1879-1026
Appears in Collections:(IDAEA) Artículos
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