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Microglia, neurodegeneration and loss of neuroendocrine control

AuthorsChowen, J.A.; García-Segura, Luis M.
Issue Date2020
PublisherElsevier BV
CitationProgress in Neurobiology 184 (2020)
AbstractMicroglia, the primary regulators of inflammatory responses in the brain, suffer deterioration during aging culminating in their inability to generate adequate adaptive responses to maintain physiological homeostasis in brain tissue. Microglia affect the function of other glial cells and neurons, including those involved in the hypothalamic control of body homeostasis. Microglial dysfunction with aging in cognitive areas such as the hippocampus is known to associate with cognitive decline; more recently, microglial alterations in the hypothalamus during midlife was suggested to participate in changes in the endocrine and metabolic control exerted by this brain region. Consequently, the feed-back loops between endocrine glands and the hypothalamus are altered. This generates a vicious circle in which the plasma levels of key neuroprotective hormones, such as gonadal hormones, insulin-like growth factor-1, growth hormone and leptin and their hypothalamic signaling are decreased, which further enhances microglial alterations and deterioration of hypothalamic function. Hypothalamic dysfunction is a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases and these diseases in turn promote additional alterations in hypothalamic microglial cells, which are unable to cope with the neurodegenerative process, resulting in permanent damage of the neuronal-glial circuits controlling endocrine homeostasis, food intake and body metabolism. Thus, a “vicious cycle” may such be initiated.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2019.101720
Identifiersdoi: 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2019.101720
issn: 1873-5118
Appears in Collections:(IC) Artículos
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