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dc.contributor.authorMartínez Álvarez, Óscar-
dc.contributor.authorCalvo, Marta-
dc.contributor.authorGómez Estaca, Joaquín-
dc.identifier.citationMarine Drugs 18(8): 406 (2020)-
dc.descriptionThis article belongs to the Special Issue Astaxanthin: A Potential Therapeutic Agent.-
dc.description.abstractAstaxanthin is a carotenoid produced by different organisms and microorganisms such as microalgae, bacteria, yeasts, protists, and plants, and it is also accumulated in aquatic animals such as fish and crustaceans. Astaxanthin and astaxanthin-containing lipid extracts obtained from these sources present an intense red color and a remarkable antioxidant activity, providing great potential to be employed as food ingredients with both technological and bioactive functions. However, their use is hindered by: their instability in the presence of high temperatures, acidic pH, oxygen or light; their low water solubility, bioaccessibility and bioavailability; their intense odor/flavor. The present paper reviews recent advances in the micro/nanoencapsulation of astaxanthin and astaxanthin-containing lipid extracts, developed to improve their stability, bioactivity and technological functionality for use as food ingredients. The use of diverse micro/nanoencapsulation techniques using wall materials of a different nature to improve water solubility and dispersibility in foods, masking undesirable odor and flavor, is firstly discussed, followed by a discussion of the importance of the encapsulation to retard astaxanthin release, protecting it from degradation in the gastrointestinal tract. The nanoencapsulation of astaxanthin to improve its bioaccessibility, bioavailability and bioactivity is further reviewed. Finally, the main limitations and future trends on the topic are discussed.-
dc.publisherMultidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute-
dc.relation.isversionofPublisher's version-
dc.titleRecent advances in astaxanthin micro/nanoencapsulation to improve its stability and functionality as a food ingredient-
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