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The Role of Cutinsomes in Plant Cuticle Formation

AuthorsStępiński, Dariusz; Kwiatkowska, Maria; Wojtczak, Agnieszka; Polit, Justyna Teresa; Domínguez, Eva; Heredia, Antonio; Popłońska, Katarzyna
KeywordsCuticle-synthesizing enzyme
Electron microscopy
Plant cuticle
Issue Date2020
PublisherMultidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
CitationCells 9(8): 1778 (2020)
AbstractThe cuticle commonly appears as a continuous lipophilic layer located at the outer epidermal cell walls of land plants. Cutin and waxes are its main components. Two methods for cutin synthesis are considered in plants. One that is based on enzymatic biosynthesis, in which cutin synthase (CUS) is involved, is well-known and commonly accepted. The other assumes the participation of specific nanostructures, cutinsomes, which are formed in physicochemical self-assembly processes from cutin precursors without enzyme involvement. Cutinsomes are formed in ground cytoplasm or, in some species, in specific cytoplasmic domains, lipotubuloid metabolons (LMs), and are most probably translocated via microtubules toward the cuticle-covered cell wall. Cutinsomes may additionally serve as platforms transporting cuticular enzymes. Presumably, cutinsomes enrich the cuticle in branched and cross-linked esterified polyhydroxy fatty acid oligomers, while CUS1 can provide both linear chains and branching cutin oligomers. These two systems of cuticle formation seem to co-operate on the surface of aboveground organs, as well as in the embryo and seed coat epidermis. This review focuses on the role that cutinsomes play in cuticle biosynthesis in S. lycopersicum, O. umbellatum and A. thaliana, which have been studied so far; however, these nanoparticles may be commonly involved in this process in different plants.
Description© 2020 by the authors
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9081778
Appears in Collections:(IHSM) Artículos
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