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Title

Stellar impact on disequilibrium chemistry and observed spectra of hot Jupiter atmospheres

AuthorsShulyak, D; Lara, Luisa María ; Rengel, M.; Nèmec, N. -E.
KeywordsPlanets and satellites: atmospheres
Planets and satellites: composition
Stars: activity
Methods: numerical
Issue Date7-Jul-2020
PublisherEDP Sciences
CitationAstronomy & Astrophysics 639: A48 (2020)
AbstractAims. We study the effect of disequilibrium processes (photochemistry and vertical transport) on mixing ratio profiles of neutral species and on the simulated spectra of a hot Jupiter exoplanet that orbits stars of various spectral types. We additionally address the impact of stellar activity that should be present, to various degrees, in all stars with convective envelopes. Methods. We used the VULCAN chemical kinetic code to compute number densities of species in irradiated planetary atmospheres. The temperature-pressure profile of the atmosphere was computed with the HELIOS code. We also utilized the tau-REx forward model to predict the spectra of planets in primary and secondary eclipses. In order to account for the stellar activity, we made use of the observed solar extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectrum taken from Virtual Planetary Laboratory as a proxy for an active sun-like star. Results. We find large changes in the mixing ratios of most chemical species in planets orbiting A-type stars, which radiate strong XUV flux thereby inducing a very effective photodissociation. For some species, these changes can propagate very deep into the planetary atmosphere to pressures of around 1 bar. To observe disequilibrium chemistry we favor hot Jupiters with temperatures T-eq = 1000 K and ultra-hot Jupiters, with T-eq approximate to 3000 K,which also have temperature inversion in their atmospheres. On the other hand, disequilibrium calculations predict no noticeable changes in spectra of planets with intermediate temperatures. We also show that stellar activity similar to that of the modern Sun drives important changes in mixing ratio profiles of atmospheric species. However, these changes take place at very high atmospheric altitudes and thus do not affect predicted spectra. Finally, we estimate that the effect of disequilibrium chemistry in planets orbiting nearby bright stars could be robustly detected and studied with future missions with spectroscopic capabilities in infrared such as James Webb Space Telescope and ARIEL. © D. Shulyak et al. 2020
DescriptionOpen Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.--Open Access funding provided by Max Planck Society.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201937210
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/217544
DOIhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201937210
ISSN0004-6361
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