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Evaluating Indoor Positioning Systems in a Shopping Mall: The Lessons Learned From the IPIN 2018 Competition

AuthorsRenaudin, Valerie; Ortiz, Miguel; Perul, Johan; Torres-Sospedra, Joaquín; Ramón Jiménez, Antonio; Pérez-Navarro, Antoni; Martín Mendoza-Silva, Germán; Seco, Fernando; Landau, Yael; Marbel, Revital; Ben-Moshe, Boaz; Zheng, Xingyu; Ye, Feng; Kuang, Jian; Li, Yu; Niu, Xiaoji; Landa, Vlad; Hacohen, Shlomi; Shvalb, Nir; Lu, Chuanhua; Uchiyama, Hideaki; Thomas, Diego; Shimada, Atsushi; Taniguchi, Rin-Ichiro; Ding, Zhenxing; Xu, Feng ; Kronenwett, Nikolai; Vladimirov, Blagovest; Lee, Soyeon; Cho, Eunyoung; Jun, Sungwoo; Lee, Changeun; Park, Sanjoon; Lee, Yonghyun; Rew, Jehyeok; Park, Changjun; Jeong, Hyeongyo; Han, Jaeseung; Lee, Keumryeol; Zhang, Wenchao; Li, Xianghong; Wie, Dongyan; Zhang, Ying; Park, So Young; Park, Chan Gook; Knauth, Stefan; Pipelidis, Georgios; Tsiamitros, Nikolaos; Lungenstrass, Tomás; Morales, Juan Pablo; Trogh, Jens; Plets, David; Opiela, Miroslav; Fang, Shih-Hau; Tsao, Yu; Chien, Ying-Ren; Yang, Shi-Shen; Ye, Shih-Jyun; Ali, Muhammad Usman; Hur, Soojung; Park, Yongwan
AdvisorPark, So Young [0000-0001-5491-6776]
Indoor navigation
Smart phones
Issue Date30-Sep-2019
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
CitationIEEE Access 7: 148594-148628 (2019)
AbstractThe Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation (IPIN) conference holds an annual competition in which indoor localization systems from different research groups worldwide are evaluated empirically. The objective of this competition is to establish a systematic evaluation methodology with rigorous metrics both for real-time (on-site) and post-processing (off-site) situations, in a realistic environment unfamiliar to the prototype developers. For the IPIN 2018 conference, this competition was held on September 22nd, 2018, in Atlantis, a large shopping mall in Nantes (France). Four competition tracks (two on-site and two off-site) were designed. They consisted of several 1 km routes traversing several floors of the mall. Along these paths, 180 points were topographically surveyed with a 10 cm accuracy, to serve as ground truth landmarks, combining theodolite measurements, differential global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and 3D scanner systems. 34 teams effectively competed. The accuracy score corresponds to the third quartile (75 th percentile) of an error metric that combines the horizontal positioning error and the floor detection. The best results for the on-site tracks showed an accuracy score of 11.70 m (Track 1) and 5.50 m (Track 2), while the best results for the off-site tracks showed an accuracy score of 0.90 m (Track 3) and 1.30 m (Track 4). These results showed that it is possible to obtain high accuracy indoor positioning solutions in large, realistic environments using wearable light-weight sensors without deploying any beacon. This paper describes the organization work of the tracks, analyzes the methodology used to quantify the results, reviews the lessons learned from the competition and discusses its future.
Publisher version (URL)https:// dx.doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2944389
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