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Host richness increases tuberculosis disease risk in game-managed areas

AuthorsBarasona, José A. ; Gortázar, Christian ; Fuente, José de la ; Vicente, Joaquín
KeywordsBovine tuberculosis
Community assemblage
Dilution effect
Host diversity
Issue Date2019
PublisherMultidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
CitationMicroorganisms 7(6): 182 (2019)
AbstractCurrent scientific debate addresses whether species richness in animal communities may negatively moderate pathogen transmission and disease outcome (dilution effect), or to the contrary, if disease emergence benefits from more diverse community assemblages (amplification effect). The result may not depend exclusively on patterns of host species biodiversity but may depend on the specific composition of reservoir hosts and vectors, and their ecology. Host–pathogen interactions have shaped variations in parasite virulence, transmissibility and specificity. In the same way the importance of factors related to host exposure or to life history trade-offs are expected to vary. In this study, we demonstrate that ungulate host species richness correlates with increased community competence to maintain and transmit pathogens of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) in game-managed areas in Mediterranean Spain. Therefore, we should consider natural and artificial variations in life histories of pathogens and host communities to characterize the impact of biodiversity on the health of diverse assemblages of human and animal communities. Since most approaches assessing epidemiology and transmission of shared pathogens only involve single- or pair-species, further research is needed to better understand the infection dynamics from complete community assemblages, at least in chronic diseases such as tuberculosis and in non-natural animal communities.
DescriptionThis article belongs to the Special Issue Virulence Identification and Analysis from Pathogenic Mycobacteria of Humans and Animals.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7060182
Appears in Collections:(IREC) Artículos
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