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Morphology and Molecular Phylogeny of a New Marine, Sand-dwelling Dinoflagellate Genus, Pachena (Dinophyceae), with Descriptions of Three New Species

AuthorsHoppenrath, Mona; Reñé, Albert ; Satta, Cecilia Teodora; Yamaguchi, Aika; Leander, Brian S.
KeywordsIndex words: benthic
Issue DateJun-2020
PublisherPhycological Society of America
CitationJournal of Phycology 56(3): 798-817 (2020)
AbstractMarine benthic dinoflagellates are interesting not only because some epiphytic genera can cause harmful algal blooms but also for understanding dinoflagellate evolution and diversification. Our understanding of their biodiversity is far from complete, and many thecate genera have unusual tabulation patterns that are difficult to relate to the diverse known phytoplankton taxa. A new sand-dwelling genus, Pachena gen. nov., is described based on morphological and DNA sequence data. Three species were discovered in distant locations and are circumscribed, namely, P. leibnizii sp. nov. from Canada, P. abriliae sp. nov. from Spain, and P. meriddae sp. nov. from Italy. All species are tiny (about 9–23 μm long) and heterotrophic. Species are characterized by their tabulation (APC 4′ 3a 6′′ 5c 5s 5′′′ 2′′′′), an apical hook covering the apical pore, an ascending cingulum, and a sulcus with central list. The first anterior intercalary plate is uniquely “sandwiched” between two plates. The species share these features and differ in the relative sizes and arrangements of their plates, especially on the epitheca. The ornamentation of thecal plates is species-specific. The new molecular phylogenies based on SSU and LSU rDNA sequences contribute to understanding the evolution of the planktonic relatives of Pachena, the Thoracosphaeraceae
Description20 pages, 10 figures, 1 table, supporting information https://doi.org/10.1111/jpy.12984
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.1111/jpy.12984
Identifiersissn: 0022-3646
e-issn: 1529-8817
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