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Influence of Alkaline Treatment on Structural Modifications of Chlorophyll Pigments in NaOH—Treated Table Olives Preserved without Fermentation

AuthorsBerlanga-Del Pozo, Marta; Gallardo Guerrero, Lourdes ; Gandul-Rojas, Beatriz
Table olive
Alkaline treatment
Issue Date1-Jun-2020
PublisherMultidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
CitationFoods 9 (6): 701 (2020)
AbstractAlkaline treatment is a key stage in the production of green table olives and its main aim is rapid debittering of the fruit. Its action is complex, with structural changes in both the skin and the pulp, and loss of bioactive components in addition to the bitter glycoside oleuropein. One of the components seriously affected are chlorophylls, which are located mainly in the skin of the fresh fruit. Chlorophyll pigments are responsible for the highly-valued green color typical of table olive specialties not preserved by fermentation. Subsequently, the effect on chlorophylls of nine processes, differentiated by NaOH concentration and/or treatment time, after one year of fruit preservation under refrigeration conditions, was investigated. A direct relationship was found between the intensity of the alkali treatment and the degree of chlorophyll degradation, with losses of more than 60% being recorded when NaOH concentration of 4% or greater were used. Oxidation with opening of the isocyclic ring was the main structural change, followed by pheophytinization and degradation to colorless products. To a lesser extent, decarbomethoxylation and dephytylation reactions were detected. An increase in NaOH from 2% to 5% reduced the treatment time from 7 to 4 h, but fostered greater formation of allomerized derivatives, and caused a significant decrease in the chlorophyll content of the olives. However, NaOH concentrations between 6% and 10% did not lead to further time reductions, which remained at 3 h, nor to a significant increase in oxidized compounds, though the proportion of isochlorin e4-type derivatives was modified. Chlorophyll compounds of series b were more prone to oxidation and degradation reactions to colorless products than those of series a. However, the latter showed a higher degree of pheophytinization, and, exclusively, decarbomethoxylation and dephytylation reactions
Description17 Páginas.-- 7 Figuras.-- 3 Tablas
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9060701
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