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Title

Sintering, microstructural development, and electrical probismuth oxide as a sintering aidperties of gadolinia-doped ceria electrolyte with

AuthorsGil, Vanesa CSIC ORCID; Tartaj, Jesús CSIC; Moure Jiménez, Carlos CSIC; Durán Botia, Pedro
KeywordsCeO2–Gd2O3
Sintering
Issue Date2006
PublisherElsevier
CitationJournal of the European Ceramic Society 26 (2006) 3161–3171
AbstractA considerable reduction (≥250 ◦C) in the sintering temperature, enhancement of the sintering density, and a slight improvement of the electrical properties, can be achieved by using bismuth oxide in the range of 0.2 to 2 wt.%, as a sintering aid for gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC) ceramic electrolytes. Dilatometric experiment (CHR) and SEM observations indicate that a liquid phase-assisting sintering mechanism contributes to the improvement in sintering density for bismuth oxide concentrations exceeding 0.5 wt.%. The addition of small amount of Bi2O3 ≤0.5 wt.% also results in the achievement of highly dense ceramic bodies (≥99% of theoretical density) after sintering at 1200 ◦C for 4 h, which indicates that the addition of Bi2O3 to gadolinia-doped ceria promoted the sintering process by a cooperating volume diffusion-liquid phase-assisting mechanism. Based on the lattice constant data, the solid solubility limit of Bi2O3 in gadolinia-ceria is, probably, lower than 1.0 wt.%. Grain size also increased with increasing Bi2O3 content up to 0.5 wt.% and then it decreased with further addition of Bi2O3. The addition of the smaller amounts of bismuth oxide, i.e., ≤1.0 wt.% Bi2O3 slightly enhanced the total ionic electrical conductivity of the gadolinia-doped ceria electrolyte. The sintering temperature strongly influenced the electrical conductivity of the doped-GDC ceramics. The best sample was that containing 1.0 wt.% Bi2O3 sintered at 1400 ◦C for 2 h which had an ionic electrical conductivity of 4 Sm−1 at 700 ◦C, and an activation energy of 0.58 eV for the oxide-ion conduction process in air.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2005.09.068
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/21464
DOI10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2005.09.068
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