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E3 ubiquitin ligases LNX1 and LNX2 are major regulators of the presynaptic glycine transporter GlyT2

AuthorsRocha-Muñoz, Andrés de la; Nuñez, E.; Arribas-González, Esther ; López-Corcuera, Beatriz ; Aragón, Carmen ; Juan-Sanz, Jaime de
Issue Date2019
PublisherSpringer Nature
CitationScientific Reports 9 (2019)
AbstractThe neuronal glycine transporter GlyT2 is an essential regulator of glycinergic neurotransmission that recaptures glycine in presynaptic terminals to facilitate transmitter packaging in synaptic vesicles. Alterations in GlyT2 expression or activity result in lower cytosolic glycine levels, emptying glycinergic synaptic vesicles and impairing neurotransmission. Lack of glycinergic neurotransmission caused by GlyT2 loss-of-function mutations results in Hyperekplexia, a rare neurological disease characterized by generalized stiffness and motor alterations that may cause sudden infant death. Although the importance of GlyT2 in pathology is known, how this transporter is regulated at the molecular level is poorly understood, limiting current therapeutic strategies. Guided by an unbiased screening, we discovered that E3 ubiquitin ligase Ligand of Numb proteins X1/2 (LNX1/2) modulate the ubiquitination status of GlyT2. The N-terminal RING-finger domain of LNX1/2 ubiquitinates a cytoplasmic C-terminal lysine cluster in GlyT2 (K751, K773, K787 and K791), and this process regulates the expression levels and transport activity of GlyT2. The genetic deletion of endogenous LNX2 in spinal cord primary neurons causes an increase in GlyT2 expression and we find that LNX2 is required for PKC-mediated control of GlyT2 transport. This work identifies, to our knowledge, the first E3 ubiquitin-ligases acting on GlyT2, revealing a novel molecular mechanism that controls presynaptic glycine availability. Providing a better understanding of the molecular regulation of GlyT2 may help future investigations into the molecular basis of human disease states caused by dysfunctional glycinergic neurotransmission, such as hyperekplexia and chronic pain.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-51301-x
Identifiersdoi: 10.1038/s41598-019-51301-x
issn: 2045-2322
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