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Phage lysins for fighting bacterial respiratory infections: a new generation of antimicrobials

AuthorsVázquez, Roberto ; García, Ernesto ; García, Pedro
KeywordsPhage lysins
Respiratory infection
Antibiotic resistance
Issue Date16-Oct-2018
PublisherFrontiers Media
CitationFrontiers in Immunolgy 9: 2252 (2018)
AbstractLower respiratory tract infections and tuberculosis are responsible for the death of about 4.5 million people each year and are the main causes of mortality in children under 5 years of age. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common bacterial pathogen associated with severe pneumonia, although other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria are involved in respiratory infections as well. The ability of these pathogens to persist and produce infection under the appropriate conditions is also associated with their capacity to form biofilms in the respiratory mucous membranes. Adding to the difficulty of treating biofilm-forming bacteria with antibiotics, many of these strains are becoming multidrug resistant, and thus the alternative therapeutics available for combating this kind of infections are rapidly depleting. Given these concerns, it is urgent to consider other unconventional strategies and, in this regard, phage lysins represent an attractive resource to circumvent some of the current issues in infection treatment. When added exogenously, lysins break specific bonds of the peptidoglycan and have potent bactericidal effects against susceptible bacteria. These enzymes possess interesting features, including that they do not trigger an adverse immune response and raise of resistance is very unlikely. Although Gram-negative bacteria had been considered refractory to these compounds, strategies to overcome this drawback have been developed recently. In this review we describe the most relevant in vitro and in vivo results obtained to date with lysins against bacterial respiratory pathogens.
Description12 p.-2 tab.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02252
Appears in Collections:(CIB) Artículos
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