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dc.contributor.authorErsmark, Erik-
dc.contributor.authorBaryshnikov, Gennady F.-
dc.contributor.authorHigham, Thomas-
dc.contributor.authorArgant, Alain-
dc.contributor.authorCastaños, Pedro-
dc.contributor.authorDöppes, Doris-
dc.contributor.authorGasparik, Mihaly-
dc.contributor.authorGermonpré, M.-
dc.contributor.authorLidén, Kerstin-
dc.contributor.authorLipecki, Grzegorz-
dc.contributor.authorMarciszak, Adrian-
dc.contributor.authorMiller, Rebecca-
dc.contributor.authorMoreno García, Marta-
dc.contributor.authorPacher, Martina-
dc.contributor.authorRobu, Marius-
dc.contributor.authorRodriguez Varela, Ricardo-
dc.contributor.authorRojo-Guerra, Manuel-
dc.contributor.authorSabol, Martin-
dc.contributor.authorSpassov, N.-
dc.contributor.authorStorå, Jan-
dc.contributor.authorValdiosera, Cristina E.-
dc.contributor.authorVillaluenga, Aritza-
dc.contributor.authorStewart, J.R.-
dc.contributor.authorDalén, Love-
dc.identifierdoi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.5172-
dc.identifierissn: 2045-7758-
dc.identifier.citationEcology and Evolution 9: 5891- 5905 (2019)-
dc.description.abstract[EN] The current phylogeographic pattern of European brown bears (Ursus arctos) has commonly been explained by postglacial recolonization out of geographically distinct refugia in southern Europe, a pattern well in accordance with the expansion/contraction model. Studies of ancient DNA from brown bear remains have questioned this pattern, but have failed to explain the glacial distribution of mitochondrial brown bear clades and their subsequent expansion across the European continent. We here present 136 new mitochondrial sequences generated from 346 remains from Europe, ranging in age between the Late Pleistocene and historical times. The genetic data show a high Late Pleistocene diversity across the continent and challenge the strict confinement of bears to traditional southern refugia during the last glacial maximum (LGM). The mitochondrial data further suggest a genetic turnover just before this time, as well as a steep demographic decline starting in the mid‐Holocene. Levels of stable nitrogen isotopes from the remains confirm a previously proposed shift toward increasing herbivory around the LGM in Europe. Overall, these results suggest that in addition to climate, anthropogenic impact and inter‐specific competition may have had more important effects on the brown bear's ecology, demography, and genetic structure than previously thought-
dc.description.sponsorshipWe are very thankful to all institutions and individuals that provided samples for this study: the Natural History Museums of Mainz (Germany), Rotterdam (The Netherlands), Brussels (Belgium), Barcelona (Spain), Verona (Italy), Vienna (Austria), Sofia (Bulgaria), Budapest (Hungary), Zagreb (Croatia), the Emil Racoviță Institute of Speleology (Romania), the Aranzadi Society of Sciences (Basque Country, Spain), the Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals PAS (Poland), and the Zoological Institute of Saint‐Petersburg (Russia). For providing samples from within Sweden, we wish to acknowledge Friedrike Johansson at the Natural History Museum in Gothenburg, Linda Wickström at SGU in Uppsala, Maria Mostadius at the Zoological Museum in Lund, and finally Gunilla Eriksson and Markus Fjellström at the Department of Archaeology, Stockholm University. For access to samples from the North Sea, we are in gratitude to Charles Schouwenburg and Albert Hoekman/NorthSeaFossils. For valuable assistance in the DNA Lab at the Swedish Museum of Natural History, we would like to thank Martin Irestedt, Bodil Cronholm, and Rodrigo Esparza‐Salas. Dr. Rebecka Miller sadly passed away during work on this manuscript. Her contribution was very much appreciated and her work at Trou Al'Wesse was funded by the Region Wallonne. Financial support for this study was obtained from the Swedish Research Council (VR), Tullbergs stiftelse, and FORMAS through the FP6 BiodivERsA ERA‐NET program. The samples from Polish sites were partially financed by the National Science Centre, grant nr 2015/17/D/ST10/01907, “The history of the brown bear (Ursus arctos Linnaeus, 1758) evolution in Central Europe as a key to modern species conservation,” awarded to Adrian Marciszak-
dc.publisherJohn Wiley & Sons-
dc.relation.isversionofPublisher's version-
dc.subjectUrsus arctos-
dc.titleGenetic turnovers and northern survival during the last glacial maximum in European brown bears-
dc.contributor.funderNational Science Centre (Poland)-
dc.contributor.orcidRojo-Guerra, Manuel [0000-0002-9317-8654]-
dc.contributor.orcidMoreno García, Marta [0000-0002-6735-9355]-
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