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Aging increases hippocampal DUSP2 by a membrane cholesterol loss-mediated RTK/p38MAPK activation mechanism

AuthorsMartín-Segura, Adrián; Casadomé-Perales, Álvaro; Fazzari, Pietro; Mas, José Manuel; Artigas, Laura; Valls, Raquel; Nebreda, Ángel R.; Dotti, Carlos G.
Issue Date25-Jun-2019
CitationFrontiers in Neurology 10 (2019)
AbstractNumerous studies suggest that the increased activity of p38MAPK plays an important role in the abnormal immune and inflammatory response observed in the course of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. On the other hand, High levels of p38MAPK are present in the brain during normal aging, suggesting the existence of mechanisms that keep the p38MAPK-regulated pro-inflammatory activity within physiological limits. In this study, we show that high p38MAPK activity in the hippocampus of old mice is in part due to the reduction in membrane cholesterol that constitutively occurs in the aging brain. Mechanistically, membrane cholesterol reduction increases p38MAPK activity through the stimulation of a subset of tyrosine kinase receptors (RTKs). In turn, activated p38MAPK increases the expression and activity of the phosphatase DUSP2, which is known to reduce the activity of different MAPKs, including p38MAPK. These results suggest that the loss of membrane cholesterol that constitutively occurs with age takes part in a negative-feedback loop that keeps p38MAPK activity levels within physiological range. Thus, conditions that increase p38MAPK activity such as cellular stressors or that inhibit DUSP2 will amplify inflammatory activity with its consequent deleterious functional changes.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2019.00675
Identifiersdoi: 10.3389/fneur.2019.00675
issn: 1664-2295
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