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Sociodemographic changes and trends in the rates of new perinatal HIV diagnoses and transmission in Spain from 1997 to 2015

AuthorsJiménez de Ory, Santiago; Ramos, José Tomás; Fortuny, Claudia; Gonzalez-Tome, Maria I.; Mellado, Maria Jose; Moreno-Pérez, David; Gavilán, César; Menasalvas, Ana Isabel; Piqueras, Ana I.; Frick, M. Antoinette; Muñoz-Fernandez, M. Angeles; Navarro Gómez, María Luisa
Issue Date24-Oct-2019
PublisherPublic Library of Science
CitationPLoS ONE 14(10): e0223536 (2019)
Abstract[Background] There are not enough nationwide studies on perinatal HIV transmission in connection with a combination of antiretroviral treatments in Spain. Our objectives were to study sociodemographic changes and trends in the rates of HIV diagnoses and perinatal transmission in Spain from 1997 to 2015.
[Methods] A retrospective study using data from Spanish Paediatric HIV Network (CoRISpe) and Spanish Minimum Basic Data Set (MDBS) was performed. HIV- diagnosed children between 1997 and 2015 were selected. Sociodemographic, clinical and immunovirological data of HIV-infected children and their mothers were studied in four calendar periods (P1: 1997–2000; P2: 2001–2005; P3: 2006–2010; P4: 2011–2015). Rates of perinatal HIV diagnoses and transmission from 1997 to 2015 were calculated.
[Results] A total of 532 HIV-infected children were included in this study. Of these children, 406 were Spanish (76.3%) and 126 immigrants (23.7%). A decrease in the number of HIV diagnoses, 203 (38.2%) children in the first (P1), 149 (28%) in the second (P2), 130 (24.4%) in the third (P3) and 50 (9.4%) in the fourth (P4) calendar periods was studied. The same decrease in the Spanish HIV-infected children (P1, 174 (46.6%), P2, 115 (30.8%), P3, 65 (17.4%) and P4, 19 (5.1%)) was monitored. However, an increase in the number of HIV diagnoses by sexual contact (P1: 0%; P2: 1.3%; P3: 4.6%; P4: 16%) was observed. The rates of new perinatal HIV diagnoses and perinatal transmission in Spanish children decreased from 0.167 to 0.005 per 100,000 inhabitants and 11.4% to 0.4% between 1997 and 2015, respectively.
[Conclusions] A decline of perinatal HIV diagnoses and transmission was observed. However, an increase of teen-agers HIV diagnoses with sexual infection was studied. Public awareness campaigns directed to teen-agers are advisable to prevent HIV infection by sexual contact.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0223536
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