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Effects of vineyard ‘potential’ and grape maturation on the aroma-volatile profile of Grenache wines

AuthorsArias, Ignacio; Lacau, Blanca; Astrain, Jesús; Barón, Cristina; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación ; Ferreira, Vicente; Escudero, Ana
KeywordsGrape maturation
Vineyard selection
Wine aroma
Issue Date6-Nov-2019
PublisherInternational Viticulture and Enology Society
CitationOENO One 53(4): 695-707 (2019)
AbstractBackground and aims: Wine is a beverage characterized by its pleasant aromatic features. These sensory notes are determined by the specific concentrations of odorous chemical compounds in each wine. Many of these aroma compounds arise directly or indirectly from the grapes, and their formation is affected by both grape metabolism and the viticultural ecosystem. Two studies were done with the 2015 vintage of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Grenache in Denominación Origen Somontano, a wine region of northern Aragon, Spain. In one study, we analysed wine from vineyards with different potentials: high potential, defined by balanced yield and high exposed leaf area (surface foliaire exposée, SFE, expressed in square metres) relative to production (P, expressed as kilograms of grapes) (i.e. high SFE:P ratio); and low potential, defined by unbalanced yield and low SFE:P ratio. In the other study, we analysed wine produced from grapes harvested at different times and therefore at different stages of ripening. The aim was to determine the effects of these variables on the aromatic compound profile of the wines. Methods and results: Concentrations of major aroma compounds were determined by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection, those of minor and trace aroma compounds by GC–mass spectrometry (MS), and those of pyrazines by thermal desorption–GC coupled with GC–MS. In the first study, wines from high-potential vineyards had higher concentrations of some compounds, such as esters of fermentative origin (isoamyl acetate, ethyl lactate and diethyl succinate), esters of varietal origin (ethyl dihydrocinnamate, methyl vanillate and ethyl vanillate), and terpenols (linalool and geraniol). In contrast, wines from low-potential vineyards had higher concentrations of 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine, γ-nonalactone and volatile phenols. In the second study, concentrations of varietal compounds such as rotundone and linalool increased with extended maturation. Furthermore, as ripening progressed, the ester to acid ratio for linear fatty acid ethyl esters generally increased while that for branched fatty acid ethyl esters tended to decrease. Acetaldehyde concentration was decreased in wines produced from grapes harvested at the latest date, a result that may be related to increased polyphenol content. Conclusions: The results of these studies provide an approximation of how the aromatic compound profile of a Grenache wine may differ between vineyards with different characteristics. Significance and impact of the study: We suggest explanations for these differences, which may guide the choice of harvest date.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.20870/oeno-one.2019.53.4.2381
Identifiersdoi: 10.20870/oeno-one.2019.53.4.2381
issn: 2494-1271
Appears in Collections:(ICVV) Artículos
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