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Elaborated regulation of griseofulvin biosynthesis in Penicillium griseofulvum and its role on conidiation and virulence

AuthorsValente, Sivia; Cometto, Agnese; Piombo, Edoardo; Meloni, Giovanna Roberta; Ballester Frutos, Ana Rosa ; González-Candelas, Luis ; Spadaro, Davide
KeywordsTranscription factor
Gene cluster
Apple blue mold
Issue Date25-May-2020
CitationInternational Journal of Food Microbiology 328: 108687 (2020)
AbstractPenicilium griseofulvum, the causal agent of apple blue mold, is able to produce in vitro and on apple a broad spectrum of secondary metabolites (SM), including patulin, roquefortine C and griseofulvin. Among them, griseofulvin is known for its antifungal and antiproliferative activity, and has received interest in many sectors, from medicine to agriculture. The biosynthesis of SM is finely regulated by filamentous fungi and can involve global regulators and pathway specific regulators, which are usually encoded by genes present in the same gene cluster as the backbone gene and tailoring enzymes. In the griseofulvin gene cluster, two putative transcription factors were previously identified, encoded by genes gsfR1 and gsfR2, and their role has been investigated in the present work. Analysis of P. griseofulvum knockout mutants lacking either gene suggest that gsfR2 forms part of a different pathway and gsfR1 exhibits many spectra of action, acting as regulator of griseofulvin and patulin biosynthesis and influencing conidia production and virulence on apple. The analysis of gsfR1 promoter revealed that the regulation of griseofulvin biosynthesis is also controlled by global regulators in response to many environmental stimuli, such as carbon and nitrogen. The influence of carbon and nitrogen on griseofulvin production was further investigated and verified, revealing a complex network of response and confirming the central role of gsfR1 in many processes in P. griseofulvum.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2020.108687
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