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The Intrinsic Biological Identities of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Coatings: Unexplored Territory for Combinatorial Therapies

AuthorsMulens-Arias, Vladimir ; Rojas, José Manuel; Barber, Domingo
Keywordsiron oxide nanoparticles
nanoparticle coatings
nanoparticle–endothelial cell interaction
nanoparticle–macrophage interaction;
nanoparticle–tumor cell interaction.
Issue DateApr-2020
PublisherMultidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
CitationNanomaterials 10(5): E837 (2020)
AbstractOver the last 20 years, iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been the subject of increasing investigation due to their potential use as theranostic agents. Their unique physical properties (physical identity), ample possibilities for surface modifications (synthetic identity), and the complex dynamics of their interaction with biological systems (biological identity) make IONPs a unique and fruitful resource for developing magnetic field-based therapeutic and diagnostic approaches to the treatment of diseases such as cancer. Like all nanomaterials, IONPs also interact with different cell types in vivo, a characteristic that ultimately determines their activity over the short and long term. Cells of the mononuclear phagocytic system (macrophages), dendritic cells (DCs), and endothelial cells (ECs) are engaged in the bulk of IONP encounters in the organism, and also determine IONP biodistribution. Therefore, the biological effects that IONPs trigger in these cells (biological identity) are of utmost importance to better understand and refine the efficacy of IONP-based theranostics. In the present review, which is focused on anti-cancer therapy, we discuss recent findings on the biological identities of IONPs, particularly as concerns their interactions with myeloid, endothelial, and tumor cells. Furthermore, we thoroughly discuss current understandings of the basic molecular mechanisms and complex interactions that govern IONP biological identity, and how these traits could be used as a stepping stone for future research.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10050837
Appears in Collections:(CNB) Artículos
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