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Title

Intervención en fachadas de ladrillo visto

Other TitlesMasonry brick façades intervention
AuthorsEchevarría, Luis; Gutiérrez Jiménez, José Pedro; Martínez, Sonia; Carballosa, Pedro; Piñeiro Martínez de Lecea, Rafael
KeywordsFábricas de ladrillo
Patología
Reparación
Issue Date2018
PublisherUniversidad de Cantabria
CitationBook of Abstracts of the 7th Euro-American Congress on Construction Pathology, Rehabilitation Technology and Heritage Managament: 639-646 (2018)
Abstract[ES]: Durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX se ha construido en España un elevado número de edificios empleando fachadas de ladrillo cara vista. Pese a la experiencia acumulada en la construcción de este sistema, la patología que aparece en este tipo de fachadas es abundante y variada. En esta ponencia se expone la patología general que afecta a esta tipología y se presenta el caso de una fachada singular de ladrillo visto de un edificio construido en los años 50 del siglo XX, que tras ser rehabilitada íntegramente en el año 2006, presentó problemas de fisuración que derivaron en la caída de fragmentos de ladrillos de fachada a la vía pública. Los ensayos realizados para determinar las causas de este fenómeno incluyeron un examen químicofísico del ladrillo (estudios para determinar la composición química de los mismos y su estado de cocción, estimación del coeficiente de dilatación térmica, etc.) y ensayos mecánicos para determinar su resistencia y módulo de elasticidad. Además, se realizaron distintas modelizaciones numéricas que se compararon con los resultados de los ensayos mecánicos. Una vez determinada la causa de la patología, se analizaron tres propuestas de reparación y se llevaron a cabo ensayos para valorar su idoneidad. Para ello se ensayaron elementos individuales, incluyendo ensayos de envejecimiento acelerado y de hielo y deshielo. Por último, se construyeron muretes de varias hiladas de altura con las soluciones propuestas de reparación ensayadas a compresión para determinar la carga de rotura del sistema reparado. Debido a los resultados obtenidos en los ensayos se puede concluir que las tres soluciones propuestas son viables, tanto económica como técnicamente. Estas soluciones fueron empleadas para la reparación de la fachada objeto de estudio según su adaptabilidad a cada zona concreta de la misma.
[EN]: During the second half of the 20th century, a large number of buildings with a masonry fairface brick façade has been built. In spite of the huge accumulated experience over the years, pathology still appears in this types, moreover, this pathology is abundant and varied. This paper presents the general pathology that affects this typology of façades, and presents the case of a singular brick façade, that appeared in a building built in the 50s of the 20th century. The façade of this building was completely rehabilitated in 2006, and several years later, some crackings that resulted in the fall of brick fragments of facade to the public highway appeared. Several test were realized to determine the causes of the phenomenon. These tests included chemical physicist tests of the brick (to determine the chemical composition of the bricks and its degree of cooking, determination of its thermal dilation coefficient, etc.) and mechanical tests to determine its resistance and Young modulus. Apart from those, different numerical models were done in order to compare their results with those obtained in the mechanical tests. Once the cause of the pathology was determined, several solutions of reparation and restitution were analyzed, and several tests were carried out in order to determine the optimum solution. To do so, individual pieces were tested, by doing several tests as rapid aging and a frost/thaw test. Lastly, several walls of low height were built with 3 proposed solutions. These walls were tested to compression to determine the ultimate load of the repaired system. Due to the results obtained at the tests, it can be concluded that the three proposals of solutions are feasible, both economically and technically. The proposed solutions were used in the final reparation of the studied façade, depending on its adaptability to each zone.
DescriptionTrabajo presentado al 7th Euro-American Congress on Construction Pathology, Rehabilitation Technology and Heritage Managament (REHABEND), celebrado en Cáceres (España) del 15 al 18 de mayo de 2018.
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/211898
ISBN978-84-697-7032-0
Appears in Collections:(IETCC) Libros y partes de libros
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