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Epigenetics: At the crossroads between genetic and environmental determinants of disease

AuthorsMorales, Paula ; Pérez, Raúl F.; Santamarina-Ojeda, Pablo; Rodríguez-Rodero, Sandra; Fernández, Agustín F.; Fraga, Mario F.
Issue Date2019
PublisherSpringer Nature
CitationBone Health: 105-128 (2019)
AbstractEpigenetic modifications play an essential role in the functional regulation of genes, including their expression. In contrast to the relative stability of the genome, the epigenome varies in a very dynamic way, through what are known as epigenetic mechanisms. These epigenetic modifications are reversible and are conditioned by environmental pressures. The most well-known epigenetic DNA modifications are the methylation of the cytosines present in the context of cytosine-guanine dinucleotides and the posttranslational modification of histones. Several works have reported that events in the early environment are associated with changes in gene expression and biological function and that such changes persist beyond the immediate influence of the stimulus and into adulthood. While the exact molecular mechanisms underlying developmental programming are largely unknown, there is much epidemiological evidence and data from animal studies linking epigenetic modifications with parental lifestyle (e.g., alcohol or tobacco consumption), nutrition, and environmental factors (such as exposure to UV light or heavy metals and stress). Moreover, pre-existing pathologies in the parents (e.g., diabetes, obesity, or metabolic syndrome) can also increase the susceptibility of the offspring to developing certain diseases over the course of their lifetime.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-7256-8_7
Appears in Collections:(CINN) Libros y partes de libros
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