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Microglial and Astrocytic Function in Physiological and Pathological Conditions: Estrogenic Modulation

AuthorsCrespo-Castrillo, Andrea; Arevalo, Maria-Angeles
Issue Date2-May-2020
PublisherMultidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
CitationInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences 21 (9): 3219 (2020)
AbstractThere are sexual differences in the onset, prevalence, and outcome of numerous neurological diseases. Thus, in Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and major depression disorder, the incidence in women is higher than in men. In contrast, men are more likely to present other pathologies, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and autism spectrum. Although the neurological contribution to these diseases has classically always been studied, the truth is that neurons are not the only cells to be affected, and there are other cells, such as glial cells, that are also involved and could be key to understanding the development of these pathologies. Sexual differences exist not only in pathology but also in physiological processes, which shows how cells are differentially regulated in males and females. One of the reasons these sexual differences may occur could be due to the different action of sex hormones. Many studies have shown an increase in aromatase levels in the brain, which could indicate the main role of estrogens in modulating proinflammatory processes. This review will highlight data about sex differences in glial physiology and how estrogenic compounds, such as estradiol and tibolone, could be used as treatment in neurological diseases due to their anti-inflammatory effects and the ability to modulate glial cell functions.
Identifiersdoi: 10.3390/ijms21093219
Appears in Collections:Colección MDPI
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