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Evaluation of pharmaceutical toxic effects of non-standard endpoints on the macrophyte species Lemna minor and Lemna gibba

AuthorsAlkimin, G.D.; Daniel, D.; Frankenbach, S.; Serôdio, J.; Soares, Amadeu M. V. M.; Barata Martí, Carlos ; Nunes, B.
Issue Date2019
CitationScience of the Total Environment 657: 926- 937 (2019)
AbstractIn the last years the environmental presence of pharmaceuticals has gained increasing attention. Research data show that these compounds can cause toxicological effects in different species of fish, mollusks and macroinvertebrates. However, the literature is scarce in terms of ecotoxicity data especially focusing on plants as test organisms. Ecotoxicological plant-based tests following the standard OEDC guideline 221 (OECD, 2006) are strongly restricted due to the recommended end-points: growth and yield of plants. It is necessary to develop and validate alternative macrophyte-based tests (non-standard endpoints), more sensible and providing additional information about the chemical contamination effects in plants. To attain this purpose, species from the Lemna genus were selected. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the toxic effects of pharmaceuticals in non-standard endpoints on two macrophyte species, Lemna minor and Lemna gibba. To this purpose an acute assay (96 h) was performed with L. minor and L. gibba exposed to chlorpromazine (CPZ), paracetamol (APAP), and diclofenac (DCF), in the following concentration ranges: 0 to 20 μg/L, 0 to 125 μg/L, and 0 to 100 μg/L, respectively. The analyzed endpoints were: levels of chlorophyll a and b, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, anthocyanins; chlorophyll fluorescence; and catalase activity. In general, higher concentrations of the tested pharmaceuticals caused significant effects on both Lemna species in terms of the different endpoints analyzed. In conclusion, acute exposures to CPZ, APAP, and DCF differently affected the defensive system of the tested species; among chlorophylls, chlorophyll b content was more affected, but pharmaceutical exposure was not able to cause alterations on chlorophyll fluorescence.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.12.002
Identifiersdoi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.12.002
issn: 1879-1026
Appears in Collections:(IDAEA) Artículos
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