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Effects of diclofenac and salicylic acid exposure on Lemna minor: Is time a factor?

AuthorsAlkimin, G.D.; Daniel, D.; Dionísio, R.; Soares, Amadeu M. V. M.; Barata Martí, Carlos ; Nunes, B.
Issue Date2019
CitationEnvironmental Research 177 (2019)
AbstractThe global occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment has been considered a particularly concerning problem with unknown consequences. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) including diclofenac (DCF) and salicylic acid (SA), are among the most frequently prescribed drugs in the world, being consequently commonly found in the aquatic environment. Prolonged experiments (with duration of exposure that surpass those recommended by already established testing guidelines) are important to obtain ecologically relevant data to address the issue of NSAIDs ecotoxicity, because by being more realistically (namely in terms of levels and durations of exposure), such tests may indicate realistic challenges posed to aquatic organisms. Among the most common test species that are used for assessing environmental quality, plants play a leading role. Lemna species are among the most important plants used for ecotoxicity testing. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the temporal effect of a prolonged exposure of DCF and SA on Lemna minor. To attain this purpose, L. minor plants were chronically exposed to 0, 4, 20, and 100 μg/L of both pharmaceuticals, and samplings were performed at 6, 10 and 14 days of exposure. The analyzed endpoints were: levels of chlorophyll a, b and total, carotenoids; and enzymatic biomarkers, such as catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferases. Diclofenac was responsible for alterations in all analyzed parameters in different intervals of exposure. Salicylic acid exposure was not capable of causing alterations on pigment contents of L. minor, however, enzymatic biomarkers were altered at all sampling intervals. Thus, it is possible to conclude that both pharmaceuticals can cause damage on the tested macrophyte species, biochemical parameters being more sensitive than physiological ones. Additional prolonged experiments are required to understand the chronic effects of different pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment, especially in plants.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.108609
Identifiersdoi: 10.1016/j.envres.2019.108609
issn: 1096-0953
Appears in Collections:(IDAEA) Artículos
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