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The inner view of NGC 1052 using multiple X-ray observations

AuthorsOsorio-Clavijo, N.; González-Martín, O.; Papadakis, I. E.; Masegosa, Josefa ; Hernández-García, L.
KeywordsGalaxies: active
Galaxies: individual: NGC 1052
X-rays: galaxies
Issue Date2020
PublisherOxford University Press
CitationMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 491: 29-38 (2019)
AbstractIn this paper, we present a multi-epoch analysis of NGC 1052, a prototypical low-luminisity active galactic nucleus, using XMM-Newton, Suzaku and NuSTAR observations taken from 2001 to 2017. This is the first time that results from NuSTAR observations have been reported for NGC 1052. Regarding technical aspects, we found a wavelength-dependent calibration issue between simultaneous XMM-Newton and NuSTAR spectra, characterized by a change in the photon index of ΓNuSTAR − ΓXMM−Newton = 0.17 ± 0.04. We use ancillary Chandra data to decontaminate the nuclear spectrum from circumnuclear contributors. We find that two baseline models can fit the broad (0.5-50 keV) X-ray spectrum of the source. One consists of a power-law-like continuum that is absorbed by a uniform absorber, and is reflected by neutral material, and a separate power-law component in the soft band. The second model consists of a clumpy absorber. The reflection component is still present, but not the soft-band power law. Instead, absorption by a warm absorber is necessary to fit the spectra. This is the first time that a reflection component has been established in this object, thanks to high-energy data from NuSTAR. This component is constant in flux and shape, supporting the idea that it is produced away from the central source (probably in the torus). We find flux, spectral slope and absorption variations on time-scales of months to years. We also find that a patchy absorber can explain the behaviour of this source better, as it is ∼200 times more likely than the uniform absorber and yields smaller intrinsic variations. © 2019 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stz2785
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