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Title

Occurrence of flame retardants in landfills: A case study in Brazil

AuthorsCristale, Joyce; Gomes Aragão Belé, Tiago; Lacorte, Sílvia; Rodrigues de Marchi, Mary Rosa
KeywordsLandfill
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers
Flame retardants
Organophosphate esters
Novel brominated flame retardants
Issue DateJan-2019
PublisherElsevier
CitationEnvironmental Research 168: 420-427 (2019)
AbstractHuge amounts of waste containing flame retardants reach landfills annually, which can result in environmental contamination if this type of solid residues is not properly managed. This study presents data concerning the occurrence of organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and new brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) in soil, dust, leachate and well water samples from a landfill in Brazil. Samples were collected in different points of the landfill site, including offices, concierge, electronic waste storage area, bulk waste storage area, a place where a recycling cooperative operates, leachate pound and wells. Most of the flame retardants (FRs) were quantified in soil samples (up to 2500 ng g−1). The tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) were present at the highest levels in the site where bulk waste was disposed in the open air. The most abundant brominated FRs in soil samples were BDE-99, BDE-209, decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), and the highest levels were observed in the samples collected from the electronic waste storage area. Concerning dust samples, the highest levels of brominated FRs were observed in the electronic waste storage area, while the highest levels of OPFRs were observed in the landfill office. TCIPP, TDCIPP and tris(2-choroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) were quantified in the well water sample collected downstream the bulk waste area. Finally, six OPFRs were quantified in leachate at concentrations ranging from 14 to 965 ng L−1. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that an improper management of wastes containing FRs in landfills can potentially contaminate the surrounding environment and groundwater.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.10.010
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/209306
DOI10.1016/j.envres.2018.10.010
Appears in Collections:(IDAEA) Artículos
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