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Emerging contaminants in soil and plant treated with wastewater under realworld environmental conditions in the Al Hayer area, Saudi Arabia: Uptake, accumulation and health risk assessment

AuthorsPicó, Yolanda; Álvarez-Ruiz, R.; Alfarhan, Ahmed; El-Sheikh, Mohamed A.; Alobaid, Samy M.; Barceló, Damià
Issue Date28-Nov-2019
Citation2nd ICRAPHE (2019)
AbstractDuring the last 60 years the development programs in various fields of Saudi Arabia, especially in the last two decades, have left clear marks on the country landscape. Moreover, there is an increase in treated sewage water which had adverse affects on the marine and terrestrial resources. In many Arid and semi arid regions, reuse of this water is a necessity for crop irrigation. The presence of organic emerging contaminants (ECs) in this water and their translocation to plants may represent a risk of human exposure. Nevertheless, information available about real field crops is scarce and focused on a limited number of compounds. The novelty of this work relays in the large number of ECs covered and the variety of crops (cabbage, barley, green beans, eggplants, chili, tomato and zucchini) analyzed. Extraction procedure developed provided an appropriate extraction yield (up to 50% of the compounds were recovered within a 70–120% range), with good repeatability (relative standard deviations below 20% in most cases) and sensitivity (LOQ b 25 ng g−1) for the model compounds. Determination by liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight (LCQqTOF-MS) is able to identify N2000 contaminants. Sixty-four ECs were identified in wastewater among which, six pharmaceuticals (atenolol, caffeine, carbamazepine and its metabolites 10,11- epoxycarbamazepine, gemfibrozil, and naproxen) and seven pesticides (acetamiprid, atrazine deethyl, azoxystrobin, bupirimate, diazinon, malathion, pirimicarb and some of their metabolites) were detected in plants also. Furthermore, one metabolite of the ibuprofen (not detected in water or soil), the ibuprofen hexoside was also found in plants. Up to our knowledge, this study demonstrates for the first time the accumulation of ECs in crops irrigated with treated wastewater under real non-controlled environmental conditions.
DescriptionTrabajo presentado en la 2nd International Conference on Risk Assessment of Pharmaceuticals in the Environment (ICRAPHE), celebrada en Barcelona (España), del 28 al 29 de noviembre de 2019
Appears in Collections:(CIDE) Comunicaciones congresos
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