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dc.contributor.authorWang, Shenges_ES
dc.contributor.authorGarcía, Mónicaes_ES
dc.contributor.authorBauer-Gottwein, Peteres_ES
dc.contributor.authorJakobsen, Jakobes_ES
dc.contributor.authorZarco-Tejada, Pablo J.es_ES
dc.contributor.authorBandini, Filippoes_ES
dc.contributor.authorSobejano Paz, Verónicaes_ES
dc.contributor.authorIbrom, Andreases_ES
dc.identifier.citationRemote Sensing of Environment 229: 14-31 (2019)es_ES
dc.description.abstractHigh spatial resolution maps of land surface energy, water and CO2 fluxes, e.g. evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary productivity (GPP), are important for agricultural monitoring, ecosystem and water resources management. However, it is not clear which is the optimal (e.g. coarsest possible) spatial resolution to capture those fluxes accurately. Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) can address this by collecting very high spatial resolution (<1 m, VHR) imagery. The objective of this study is to model ET and GPP dynamics using VHR optical and thermal imagery and quantify the influence of the spatial heterogeneity in the flux simulations and validations. The study was conducted at a deciduous willow bioenergy eddy covariance (EC) flux site in Denmark. Flight campaigns were conducted during the growing seasons of 2016 and 2017 with a hexacopter equipped with RGB, multispectral and thermal infrared cameras. A ‘top-down’ modeling approach consisting of the Priestley–Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory model and a light use efficiency model sharing the same canopy biophysical constraints was used to estimate ET and GPP. Model outputs were benchmarked by EC flux observations with the source weighted footprint. Our results indicate that our model can well estimate the instantaneous net radiation, ET, GPP, evaporative fraction, light use efficiency and water use efficiency with root-mean-square deviations (RMSD) of 31.6 W·m−2, 41.2 W·m−2, 3.12 μmol·C·m−2·s−1, 0.08, 0.16 g·C·MJ−1 and 0.35 g·C·kg−1, respectively. Further, it is found that using a footprint model to sample different areas of VHR imagery can be a tool to provide better diurnal estimates to benchmark with EC data. Moreover, these VHR maps (0.3 m) allowed us to quantify metrics of spatial heterogeneity by using semivariogram analysis and by aggregating model inputs into different spatial resolutions. For instance, we find that in this site, the aggregation of simulated GPP using the source weighted mean of the EC footprint was about 30% lower in RMSD than using the arithmetic mean of the footprint. This demonstrates the accuracy of the modeled VHR spatial patterns. Nevertheless, we also find that imagery resolution consistent with the canopy size (around 1.5 m in our study) is sufficient to capture the spatial heterogeneity of the fluxes as transpiration and canopy assimilation of CO2 are processes regulated at the tree crown level. Our results highlight the importance of considering the land surface heterogeneity for flux modeling and the source contribution within the EC footprint for model benchmarking at appropriate spatial resolutions.es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipThe authors would like to thank the European Union (EU) and Innovation Fund Denmark (IFD) for funding, in the frame of the collaborative international consortium AgWIT financed under the ERA-NET Co-fund Water Works 2015 Call. This ERA-NET is an integral part of the 2016 Joint Activities developed by the Water Challenges for a Changing World Joint Programme Initiative (Water JPI). This study was also supported by the Smart UAV project from IFD [125-2013-5]. SW was financed by an internal PhD grant from the Department of Environmental Engineering at DTU and SW conducted a short term research stage with PZT through the COST action OPTIMISE.es_ES
dc.subjectGross primary productivityes_ES
dc.subjectEddy covariancees_ES
dc.subjectOptical and thermal remote sensinges_ES
dc.subjectInstantaneous and diurnales_ES
dc.subjectSpatial heterogeneityes_ES
dc.titleHigh spatial resolution monitoring land surface energy, water and CO2 fluxes from an Unmanned Aerial Systemes_ES
dc.description.peerreviewedPeer reviewedes_ES
dc.contributor.funderEuropean Commissiones_ES
dc.contributor.funderInnovation Fund Denmarkes_ES
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