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Automatic UAV-based detection of Cynodon dactylon for site-specific vineyard management

AuthorsJiménez-Brenes, Francisco Manuel ; López Granados, Francisca ; Torres-Sánchez, Jorge ; Peña Barragán, José Manuel ; Ramírez, Pilar; Castillejo González, Isabel L.; Castro, Ana Isabel de
Issue Date11-Jun-2019
PublisherPublic Library of Science
CitationPLoS ONE 14(6): e0218132 (2019)
AbstractThe perennial and stoloniferous weed, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. (bermudagrass), is a serious problem in vineyards. The spectral similarity between bermudagrass and grapevines makes discrimination of the two species, based solely on spectral information from multi-band imaging sensor, unfeasible. However, that challenge can be overcome by use of object-based image analysis (OBIA) and ultra-high spatial resolution Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) images. This research aimed to automatically, accurately, and rapidly map bermudagrass and design maps for its management. Aerial images of two vineyards were captured using two multispectral cameras (RGB and RGNIR) attached to a UAV. First, spectral analysis was performed to select the optimum vegetation index (VI) for bermudagrass discrimination from bare soil. Then, the VI-based OBIA algorithm developed for each camera automatically mapped the grapevines, bermudagrass, and bare soil (accuracies greater than 97.7%). Finally, site-specific management maps were generated. Combining UAV imagery and a robust OBIA algorithm allowed the automatic mapping of bermudagrass. Analysis of the classified area made it possible to quantify grapevine growth and revealed expansion of bermudagrass infested areas. The generated bermudagrass maps could help farmers improve weed control through a well-programmed strategy. Therefore, the developed OBIA algorithm offers valuable geo-spatial information for designing site-specific bermudagrass management strategies leading farmers to potentially reduce herbicide use as well as optimize fuel, field operating time, and costs.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0218132
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