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Moho, crustal architecture and deep deformation under the North Marmara Trough, from the SEISMARMARA Leg 1 offshore–onshore reflection–refraction survey

AuthorsBécel, Anne CSIC ORCID; Laigle, M.; Voogd, Béatrice de; Hirn, A.; Taymaz, Tuncay; Galvé, A.; Shimamura, Hideki; Murai, Yoshio; Lépine, Jean-Claude; Sapin, M.; Özalaybey, Serdar
KeywordsSeismic refraction
Seismic reflection
North Anatolian Fault
Sea of Marmara
Deep deformation
Crustal thinning
Issue DateMar-2009
CitationTectonophysics 467(1-4): 1-21(2009)
AbstractUnderstanding further the nature and evolution at lithospheric scale of the Sea of Marmara on the North Anatolian Fault needs constraints on the deep crustal and Moho spatial variation. This has been probed here with offshore–onshore and OBS, Ocean Bottom Seismometer refraction seismics, in addition to coincident MCS, marine multichannel reflection seismic profiles over the whole North Marmara Trough. The diverse strikes of MCS profiles in a dense grid allow to avoid misinterpretation of late echoes in the deep basin as Moho reflections and attribute them to sidesweeps. Moho is instead positively identified from reversed observations of first-arrival head and refracted waves at the top of the mantle obtained at large offset by land stations. A significant and sharp reduction in its depth, on the order of 5 km occurs beneath both the eastern and western rims of the North Marmara Trough, with a more progressive crustal thinning from the south. The wide-angle reflections on OBS and land stations document in addition to Moho the top of a lower crustal reflective layer, which is also sampled by MCS profiles, and appears to follow Moho topography. The dense grid of MCS profiles along the southwestern margin of the North Marmara Trough reveals a dipping reflector through the upper crust with tilted basement blocks on top. This low-angle fault is suggested as a normal sense detachment extending in depth towards the reflective lower crust. The upwarp of the Moho and lower crustal layer towards the North Marmara Trough suggests that crustal thinning occurs mostly in the upper crustal part, with lateral transport of the material towards WSW in the footwall of the detachment, and possibly other features to the south, in the motion of Anatolia with respect to stable Eurasia oblique to the North Marmara Trough. Thinning can be accommodated in an asymmetric partitioning of the displacement on several branching faults at lithospheric scale.
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