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Physical Exercise During Pregnancy Prevents Cognitive Impairment Induced by Amyloid-ß in Adult Offspring Rats

AuthorsPeres Klein, Caroline; Bender Hoppe, Juliana; Brum Saccomori, André; Gindri dos Santos, Bernardo; Sagini, João Pedro; Scortegagna Crestani, Mariana; Maciel August, Pauline; Mateus Hözer, Régis; Grings, Mateus; Parmeggiani, Belisa; Leipnitz, Guilhian; Navas, Plácido ; Gazzana Salbego, Christianne; Matté, Cristiane
KeywordsMaternal swimming
Metabolic programming
Alzheimer’s disease
Mitochondrial function
Issue Date2019
PublisherSpringer Nature
CitationMolecular Neurobiology 56: 2022-2038 (2019)
AbstractAlzheimer’s disease (AD) is the main aging-associated neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, synaptic failure, and cognitive decline. It has been a challenge to find disease course-modifying treatments. However, several studies demonstrated that regular physical activity and exercise are capable of promoting brain health by improving the cognitive function. Maternal lifestyle, including regular exercise during pregnancy, has also been shown to influence fetal development and disease susceptibility in adulthood through fetal metabolism programming. Here, we investigated the potential neuroprotective role of regular maternal swimming, before and during pregnancy, against amyloid-β neurotoxicity in the adult offspring. Behavioral and neurochemical analyses were performed 14 days after male offspring received a single, bilateral, intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of amyloid-β oligomers (AβOs). AβOs-injected rats of the sedentary maternal group exhibited learning and memory deficits, along with reduced synaptophysin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, and alterations of mitochondrial function. Strikingly, the offspring of the sedentary maternal group had AβOs-induced behavioral alterations that were prevented by maternal exercise. This effect was accompanied by preventing the alteration of synaptophysin levels in the offspring of exercised dams. Additionally, offspring of the maternal exercise group exhibited an augmentation of functional mitochondria, as indicated by increases in mitochondrial mass and membrane potential, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and cytochrome c oxidase enzymes activities. Moreover, maternal exercise during pregnancy induced long-lasting modulation of fusion and fission proteins, Mfn1 and Drp1, respectively. Overall, our data demonstrates a potential protective effect of exercise during pregnancy against AβOs-induced neurotoxicity in the adult offspring brain, by mitigating the neurodegenerative process triggered by Alzheimer-associated AβOs through programming the brain metabolism.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-018-1210-x
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