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dc.contributor.authorRai, Pragaties_ES
dc.contributor.authorFurger, Markuses_ES
dc.contributor.authorSlowik, Jay G.es_ES
dc.contributor.authorCanonaco, Francescoes_ES
dc.contributor.authorFröhlich, Romanes_ES
dc.contributor.authorHüglin, Christophes_ES
dc.contributor.authorMinguillón, María Cruzes_ES
dc.contributor.authorPetterson, Krages_ES
dc.contributor.authorBaltensperger, Urses_ES
dc.contributor.authorPrévôt, André S. H.es_ES
dc.identifier.citationAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics 20: 1657–1674 (2020)es_ES
dc.description.abstractThe measurement of elements in PM10 was performed with 1 h time resolution at a rural freeway site during summer 2015 in Switzerland using the Xact1 625 Ambient Metals Monitor. On average the Xact elements (without accounting for oxygen and other associated elements) make up about 20 % of the total PM10 mass (14.6 µg m−3). We conducted source apportionment by positive matrix factorisation (PMF) of the elemental mass measurable by the Xact (i.e. major elements heavier than Al), defined here as PM10el. Eight different sources were identified in PM10el (elemental PM10) mass driven by the sum of 14 elements (notable elements in brackets): Fireworks-I (K, S, Ba and Cl), Fireworks-II (K), sea salt (Cl), secondary sulfate (S), background dust (Si, Ti), road dust (Ca), non-exhaust traffic-related elements (Fe) and industrial elements (Zn and Pb). The major components were secondary sulfate and non-exhaust traffic-related elements followed by background dust and road dust factors, explaining 21 %, 20 %, 18 % and 16 % of the analysed PM10 elemental mass, respectively, with the factor mass not corrected for oxygen content. Further, there were minor contributions (on the order of a few percent) of sea salt and industrial sources. The regionally influenced secondary sulfate factor showed negligible resuspension, and concentrations were similar throughout the day. The significant loads of the non-exhaust traffic-related and road dust factors with strong diurnal variations highlight the continuing importance of vehicle-related air pollutants at this site. Enhanced control of PMF implemented via the SourceFinder software (SoFi Pro version 6.2, PSI, Switzerland) allowed for a successful apportionment of transient sources such as the two firework factors and sea salt, which remained mixed when analysed by unconstrained PMF.es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipThis study has been funded by the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN). This research has been supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF; grant nos. 200021_162448/1 and BSSGI0_155846). María Cruz Minguillón acknowledges the Ramón y Cajal Fellowship awarded by the Spanish Ministry.es_ES
dc.publisherCopernicus Publicationses_ES
dc.relation.isversionofPublisher's versiones_ES
dc.subjectTrace elementses_ES
dc.subjectAir pollutantses_ES
dc.titleSource apportionment of highly time-resolved elements during a firework episode from a rural freeway site in Switzerlandes_ES
dc.description.peerreviewedPeer reviewedes_ES
oprm.item.hasRevisionno ko 0 false*
dc.contributor.orcidMinguillón, María Cruz [0000-0002-5464-0391]es_ES
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