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Insights into the processing of Spanish natural olives

AuthorsBrenes Balbuena, Manuel ; Romero Barranco, Concepción ; García García, Pedro ; Castro Gómez-Millán, Antonio de ; Medina Pradas, Eduardo
Keywordstable olives, debittering, fermentation, phenolic, valorization
Issue Date2018
PublisherAmerican Farm School
Citation1st International Conference ‘Krinos Olive Center’: Book of Abstracts: 10- 16 (2018)
AbstractAccording to the “Trade Standards Applying to Table Olives” (International Olive Council, 2004), natural olives are those harvested with green, turning colour or black surface colour which are placed directly in brine without any alkali treatment. In Spain, this trade preparation represents less than 5% of total production although consumer ́s demand is increasing, particularly for organic olives. Empeltre, Aloreña, Verdial, Manzanilla, Gordal, Cornezuelo, Cacereña and Arbequina are the main olive cultivars processed as natural olives. Green and turning colour olives are currently fermented in acidified brine to avoid microbial spoilage whereas black olives are put directly in brine where lactic acid fermentation is not wanted. Many changes occurs during fermentation of natural olives, in particular colour of green olives darken due to chemical and enzymatic oxidation of the phenolic compounds, and their firmness is also affected mainly at low pH and high ambient temperature. One of the main drawbacks of this type of olives is the slow debittering process needed to make palatable the product. Debittering is carried out first by an enzymatic hydrolysis of the oleuropein followed by the chemical hydrolysis of this substance and its derivatives under the acidic environment of the fermentation brine. The whole debittering process may last for months although it depends on many factors. Nevertheless, this process can be accelerated favouring the oxidation of the oleuropein present in the olive flesh. Despite the colour variability, destoning problems and high sodium content in natural olives, this product is increasingly appreciated by consumers because of their high content in bioactive substances, such as phenolic compounds and triterpenic acids
Identifiersisbn: 978-618-80868-4-5
Appears in Collections:(IG) Comunicaciones congresos
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