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dc.contributor.authorDíaz-Cruz, M. Silvia-
dc.contributor.authorLópez de Alda, Miren-
dc.contributor.authorLópez, Ramón-
dc.contributor.authorBarceló, Damià-
dc.identifier.citationJournal of Mass Spectrometry 38(9): 917-923 (2003)en_US
dc.description7 pages, 3 figures, 4 tables.-- PMID: 14505318 [PubMed].-- Printed version published Sep 2003.en_US
dc.description.abstractSteroid sex hormones and related synthetic compounds have been shown to provoke alarming estrogenic effects in aquatic organisms, such as feminization, at very low concentrations (ng/L or pg/L). In this work, different chromatographic techniques, namely, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), are discussed for the analysis of estrogens, both free and conjugated, and progestogens, and the sensitivities achieved with the various techniques are inter-compared. GC/MS analyses are usually carried out after derivatization of the analytes with bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA). For LC/MS and LC/MS/MS analyses, different instruments, ionization techniques (electrospray (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)), ionization modes (negative ion (NI) and positive ion (PI)) and monitoring modes (selected ion monitoring (SIM) and selected reaction monitoring (SRM)) are generally employed. Based on sensitivity and selectivity, LC/ESI-MS/MS is generally the method of choice for determination of estrogens in the NI mode and of progestogens in the PI mode (instrumental detection limits (IDLs) 0.1-10 ng/mL). IDLs achieved by LC/ESI-MS in the SIM mode and by LC/ESI-MS/MS in the SRM mode were, in general, comparable, although the selectivity of the latter is significantly higher and essential to avoid false positive determinations in the analysis of real samples.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work has been supported by the Energy, Environmental and Sustainable Development Program (Project ARTDEMO EVK1-CT2002-00114) and by CICYT (Project BQU2002-10903-E).en_US
dc.format.extent22195 bytes-
dc.subjectSteroid sex hormonesen_US
dc.subjectMass spectrometric techniquesen_US
dc.subjectAquatic environmenten_US
dc.titleDetermination of estrogens and progestogens by mass spectrometric techniques (GC/MS, LC/MS and LC/MS/MS)en_US
dc.description.peerreviewedPeer revieweden_US
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