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Aluminium-containing vaccines in sheep: comprehensive long-term studies at the inoculation point

AuthorsAsín, Javier; Lacasta, Delia; Gimeno, Marina; Pinczowski, Pedro; Molín, Jéssica; Pérez, Marta M.; Navascués, Nuria; Muniesa, Ana; Fernández, Antonio; Pablo, Lorena de ; Crespo, Helena ; Andrés, Damián F. de ; Reina, Ramsés ; Luján, Lluís
Issue Date25-May-2017
Citation9th International Sheep Veterinary Congress (2017)
AbstractAluminium is the most common adjuvant used in sheep vaccines in order to improve the reaction against bacterial or viral antigens. The inoculation is associated with a strong, local inflammatory reaction where the antigen recognition takes place. These reactions are considered transient and it is said that they disappear after a few weeks. To the best of our knowledge no study has followed the evolution of the vaccine inoculation site for a long period of time. Here, we present a comprehensive long-term study aiming to evaluate the evolution of the post-inoculation inflammatory reactions and to fully characterize them. Three groups (n=28 each) of sex-matched three-month-old lambs were used. Each group followed a parallel inoculation schedule that lasted 15 months: Group A was subcutaneously inoculated with commercial vaccines against known ovine diseases (following manufacturers’ recommendations), all of them containing aluminium hydroxide as adjuvant; Group B received the same amount of aluminium-adjuvant alone (considering the vaccine used in each time in Group A); Group C received PBS. Animals received a total of 19 inoculations during the above-mentioned 15 months and they were finally euthanized. Inoculation point and local lymph node were assessed in vivo and post mortem. In vivo, an evaluation by palpation was carried out each 40 days. Post mortem studies included gross and microscopic pathology, microbiology, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. At in vivo palpation, reactions consisted of hard, subcutaneous nodules that were associated with lymph node reactivity. Inoculation nodules were more palpable in the case of vaccines than those observed in the case of adjuvant alone. At post mortem, nodules were found in vaccinated (100 %) and aluminium-inoculated (85.7 %) animals. Up to 15 nodules were recovered from the subcutaneous tissue of some vaccinated animals. Histologically, inoculation reactions consisted in foreign body granulomas that showed central necrosis almost only in commercial vaccines. In both, aluminium and vaccines granulomas, the microbiological procedures were negative. By STEM, reactive macrophages contained intracytoplasmic aggregates of a spiculated material frequently surrounded by a membrane, this material being identified as aluminium by EDX. Intracytoplasmic aluminium aggregates were of larger size in the case of vaccine granulomas. It is concluded that in sheep, aluminium-induced granulomas can be persistent and last more than 15 months. This persistence implies a chronic but active immune reaction that could be related to some previously-described vaccine secondary effects included in the ovine ASIA syndrome
DescriptionTrabajo presentado en el 9th International Sheep Veterinary Congress, celebrado en Harrowgate (Reino Unido), del 22 al 26 de mayo de 2017
Appears in Collections:(IDAB) Comunicaciones congresos
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