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Elevated systemic L-Kynurenine/L-Tryptophan ratio and increased IL-1 beta and chemokine (CX3CL1, MCP-1) proinflammatory mediators in patients with long-term titanium dental implants

AuthorsMerino, José Joaquín; Cabaña-Muñoz, María Eugenia; Toledano Gasca, Adolfo ; Garcimartín, Alba; Benedí, Juana; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; Parmigiani-Izquierdo, José María
KeywordsAmino acids
Kynurenine pathways
Titanium dental implants and dental amalgam fillings
Tryptophan (L-Trp)
CX3CL1 (fractalkine)
Dentistry and medical toxicology
Issue Date2-Sep-2019
PublisherMultidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
CitationJournal of Clinical Medicine 8(9): 1368 (2019)
AbstractTitanium is the mean biocompatible metal found in dental titanium alloys (Ti-6Al-4V). The safety of certain dental biomaterial amalgams has been questioned in patients. The levels of several systemic cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-4: pg/mL) and chemokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), soluble fractalkine (CX3CL1: pg/mL) were determined using ELISA and compared between these study groups. The study included 30 controls without dental materials (cont), 57 patients with long-term titanium dental implants plus amalgams (A + I group) as well as 55 patients with long-term dental amalgam alone (A group). All patients (except controls) have had dental titanium implants (Ti-6Al-4V) and/or amalgams for at least 10 years (average: 15 years). We evaluated whether systemic levels of cytokines/chemokines, kyn/L-trp ratio and aromatic amino acid levels (HPLC: mM/L, Phe, L-Trp, His, Treo) could be altered in patients with long-term dental titanium and/or amalgams. These systemic markers were evaluated in 142 patients. The A + I group had higher L-Kynurenine/L-Tryptophan ratios than patients with long-term dental amalgam fillings alone (A). In addition, levels of IL-1 Beta cytokine, CX3CL1 and MCP-1 chemokines were higher in the A + I group than in the A group (A). The increased L-kyn/L-trp ratio and MCP-1 and fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) elevations could suggest enhanced chemotactic responses by these chemokines in the A + I group.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8091368
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