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Effects of sustained exercise on GH-IGFs axis in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata)

AuthorsVélez, Emilio ; Azizi, Sheida; Millán-Cubillo, A.; Fernández-Borràs, Jaume; Blasco, Josefina; Chan, Shu Jin; Calduch-Giner, Josep A. ; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume ; Navarro, Isabel; Capilla, E.; Gutiérrez, Joaquim
KeywordsGrowth hormone
GH receptors
IGF-I receptors
IGF binding proteins
Issue Date15-Feb-2016
PublisherAmerican Physiological Society
CitationAmerican Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 310(4): R313-R322 (2016)
AbstractThe endocrine system regulates growth mainly through the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) axis and, although exercise promotes growth, little is known about its modulation of these factors. The aim of this work was to characterize the effects of 5 wk of moderate sustained swimming on the GH-IGFs axis in gilthead sea bream fingerlings. Plasma IGF-I/GH ratio and tissue gene expression of total IGF-I and three splice variants, IGF-II, three IGF binding proteins, two GH receptors, two IGF-I receptors, and the downstream molecules were analyzed. Fish under exercise (EX) grew more than control fish (CT), had a higher plasma IGF-I/GH ratio, and showed increased hepatic IGF-I expression (mainly IGF-Ia). Total IGF-I expression levels were similar in the anterior and caudal muscles; however, IGF-Ic expression increased with exercise, suggesting that this splice variant may be the most sensitive to mechanical action. Moreover, IGFBP-5b and IGF-II increased in the anterior and caudal muscles, respectively, supporting enhanced muscle growth. Furthermore, in EX fish, hepatic IGF-IRb was reduced together with both GHRs; GHR-II was also reduced in anterior muscle, while GHR-I showed higher expression in the two muscle regions, indicating tissue-dependent differences and responses to exercise. Exercise also increased gene and protein expression of target of rapamycin (TOR), suggesting enhanced muscle protein synthesis. Altogether, these data demonstrate that moderate sustained activity may be used to increase the plasma IGF-I/GH ratio and to potentiate growth in farmed gilthead sea bream, modulating the gene expression of different members of the GH-IGFs axis (i.e., IGF-Ic, IGF-II, IGFBP-5b, GHR-I, and TOR).
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00230.2015
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