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Title

From spent alkaline batteries to ZnxMn3-xO4 by a hydrometallurgical route: synthesis and characterization

AuthorsAlcaraz, Lorena; López Fernández, A.; García-Díaz, Irene; Fernández, Paloma; Urbieta, A.; López Gómez, Félix Antonio
KeywordsAlkaline batteries
Characterization
Hydrometallurgical
Magnetic properties
Issue Date2018
PublisherRoyal Society of Chemistry (UK)
CitationRSC Advances 8: 33496-33505 (2018)
AbstractA series of Zn/Mn binary oxides with different molar ratios (1.4–11) were synthesized via co-precipitation from a solution obtained through the acidic (HCl) leaching of a black mass originating from the mechanical recycling of spent alkaline and Zn–C batteries. The oxides obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. Magnetic properties of the samples were also investigated. The Raman spectroscopy results showed all the binary metallic oxides belong to the ZnxMn3−xO4 (0.25 ≤ x ≥ 1.75) type. All showed a spinel crystalline structure. The saturation magnetization decreases with the Zn/Mn molar ratio; a maximum of 13.19 emu g−1 was found for the molar ratio of 11 at the Curie temperature (25.5 K). XPS showed that all the synthesized compounds contained Mn2+, Mn3+ and Mn4+. Mn2+ was the most prominent at a molar ratio of 11, Mn3+ was most common at a molar ratio of 2, and Mn4+ at 1.4.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.1039/c8ra06789a
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/189029
Identifiersdoi: 10.1039/c8ra06789a
issn: 2046-2069
Appears in Collections:(CENIM) Artículos
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