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Severe and malignant hypertension are common in primary atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome

AuthorsCavero, Teresa; Arjona, Emilia ; Soto, Karina; Caravaca-Fontán, Fernando; Rabasco, Cristina; Bravo, Luis; de la Cerda, Francisco; Martín, Nadia; Blasco, Miquel; Ávila, Ana; Huerta, Ana; Cabello-Chaves, Virginia; Jarque, Ana; Alcázar, Concepción; Fulladosa, Xavier; Carbayo, Javier; Anaya, Sara; Cobelo, Carmen; Ramos, Natalia; Iglesias, Elena; Baltar, José; Martínez-Gallardo, Rocío; Pérez, Lourdes ; Morales-Ruiz, E.; González, Roberto; Macía, Manuel; Draibe, Juliana; Pallardó, Luis; Quintana, Luis F.; Espinosa, Mario; Barros, Xoana; Pereira, Fernando; Cao, Mercedes; Moreno, Juan Antonio; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago ; Praga, Manuel
KeywordsAtypical hemolytic uremic syndrome
Malignant hypertension
Issue Date31-May-2019
CitationKidney International (2019)
AbstractMalignant hypertension is listed among the causes of secondary thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), but pathogenic mutations in complement genes have been reported in patients with hypertension-induced TMA. Here we investigated the frequency and severity of hypertension in 55 patients with primary atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). A genetic analysis was performed in all patients, and funduscopic examination was performed in all the patients with Grades 2 and 3 hypertension. A cohort of 110 patients with malignant hypertension caused by diseases other than aHUS served as control. Thirty-six patients with aHUS presented Grade 2 or Grade 3 hypertension and funduscopic examination showed malignant hypertension in 19. Genetic abnormalities in complement were found in 19 patients (37% among patients with malignant hypertension). Plasmapheresis was performed in 46 patients and 26 received eculizumab. Renal and hematological responses were significantly lower after plasmapheresis (24%) than after eculizumab (81%). Renal survival was significantly higher in patients treated with eculizumab (85% at one, three and five years) compared to patients who did not receive this treatment (54%, 46% and 41%), respectively. Response to eculizumab was independent of hypertension severity and the presence of complement genetic abnormalities. Among patients with malignant hypertension caused by other diseases the prevalence of TMA was very low (5%). Thus, severe and malignant hypertension are common among patients with aHUS and eculizumab treatment leads to a higher renal survival when compared to plasmapheresis. However, TMA is uncommon among patients presenting with malignant hypertension caused by diseases other than aHUS.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2019.05.014
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