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Lysyl oxidase-like 3 is required for melanoma cell survival by maintaining genomic stability

AuthorsSantamaría, Patricia G.; Floristán, Alfredo; Fontanals-Cirera, Bárbara; Vazquez-Naharro, Alberto; Santos, Vanesa ; Morales, Saleta ; Yuste Pérez, Lourdes; Peinado, Héctor; García-Gómez, Antonio; Portillo, Francisco ; Hernando, Eva; Cano, Amparo
Issue Date2018
PublisherSpringer Nature
CitationCell Death and Differentiation 25(5): 935-950 (2018)
AbstractLysyl oxidase-like 3 (LOXL3) is a member of the lysyl oxidase family comprising multifunctional enzymes with depicted roles in extracellular matrix maturation, tumorigenesis, and metastasis. In silico expression analyses followed by experimental validation in a comprehensive cohort of human cell lines revealed a significant upregulation of LOXL3 in human melanoma. We show that LOXL3 silencing impairs cell proliferation and triggers apoptosis in various melanoma cell lines. Further supporting a pro-oncogenic role in melanoma, LOXL3 favors tumor growth in vivo and cooperates with oncogenic BRAF in melanocyte transformation. Upon LOXL3 depletion, melanoma cells display a faulty DNA damage response (DDR), characterized by ATM checkpoint activation and inefficient ATR activation leading to the accumulation of double-strand breaks (DSBs) and aberrant mitosis. Consistent with these findings, LOXL3 binds to proteins involved in the maintenance of genome integrity, in particular BRCA2 and MSH2, whose levels dramatically decrease upon LOXL3 depletion. Moreover, LOXL3 is required for efficient DSB repair in melanoma cells. Our results reveal an unexpected role for LOXL3 in the control of genome stability and melanoma progression, exposing its potential as a novel therapeutic target in malignant melanoma, a very aggressive condition yet in need for more effective treatment options.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.1038/s41418-017-0030-2
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