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LOXL2 drives epithelialmesenchymal transition via activation of IRE1-XBP1 signalling pathway

AuthorsCuevas, Eva P. ; Eraso, Pilar ; Mazón, María J. ; Santos, Vanesa ; Moreno-Bueno, Gema ; Cano, Amparo ; Portillo, Francisco
Issue Date2017
PublisherSpringer Nature
CitationScientific Reports 7: 44988 (2017)
AbstractEpithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) is a key process contributing to the aggressiveness of cancer cells. EMT is triggered by activation of different transcription factors collectively known as EMT-TFs. Different cellular cues and cell signalling networks activate EMT at transcriptional and posttranscriptional level in different biological and pathological situations. Among them, overexpression of LOXL2 (lysyl oxidase-like 2) induces EMT independent of its catalytic activity. Remarkably, perinuclear/cytoplasmic accumulation of LOXL2 is a poor prognosis marker of squamous cell carcinomas and is associated to basal breast cancer metastasis by mechanisms no yet fully understood. Here, we report that overexpression of LOXL2 promotes its accumulation in the Endoplasmic Reticulum where it interacts with HSPA5 leading to activation of the IRE1-XBP1 signalling pathway of the ER-stress response. LOXL2-dependent IRE1-XBP1 activation induces the expression of several EMT-TFs: SNAI1, SNAI2, ZEB2 and TCF3 that are direct transcriptional targets of XBP1. Remarkably, inhibition of IRE1 blocks LOXL2-dependent upregulation of EMT-TFs thus hindering EMT induction.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.1038/srep44988
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